WORD DERIVATION

Izvodženje slov

Contents:

Proto-Slavic   •   International vocabulary
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Proto-Slavic

Words are based on the living Slavic languages, and when the latter are not in agreement with each other, we basically follow the majority by applying a voting system. To avoid inconsistencies, we have to make sure that words using the same root always use it in the same form. Because all Slavic languages derive their forms from Common Slavic in a fairly predictable way, we never borrow from them directly. Instead, we follow a model for simple derivation from Common Slavic. This makes the language both easier to recognise and easier to use for everybody. Just by reading a few texts, a person will automatically learn quickly how a given sound in his own language is represented in Interslavic.

The following table shows how various Common Slavic sounds and sequences are dealt with in Interslavic. Please note that in some cases it is possible to distinguish between a North and a South Slavic version (see flavourisation).

Proto-SlavicSlavic Interslavic Examples
Scientific („naučny”) orthography Simplified („standard”) orthography Scientific („naučny”) orthography Simplified („standard”) orthography
ě RU/BE 'e, UK i, PL ie/ia, CZ ě/e/a, SK ie/e/a, SL/SR/MK e, HR (i)je, BG e/ja ě ě svět, rěka svět, rěka
ę ESl. ja, PL ią/ię, CZ a/ě, SK ä/a/ia, SSl. e ę e język, svęty jezyk, svety
ǫ PL ą/ę, CZ u/ou/i, SL o, MK a, BG ъ/a, otherwise u ų u pųť, rųka put, ruka
initial ǫ- RU/CZ/SK u-, PL wą-, SB wu-; other languages are less consistent vų- vu- troby, pak vutroby, pavuk
strong ь BCMS a, otherwise e e e otec, pes otec, pes
strong ъ ESl./SK/MK o, PL/CZ/SL e, BCMS a, BG ă ò o sòn, pěsòk son, pěsok
(C)orC
(C)olC
ESl. (o)ro/(o)lo, PL ro/ło, SSl./CZ/SK ra/la
ra
la
gd, kva
gva, mdy
grad, krava
glava, mlady
(C)erC
(C)elC
ESl. (e)re/(o)lo, PL rze/le, SSl./CZ/SK ra/la

bg, pd
mko
bg, pd
mko
syllabic r ESl. or, PL ar, BG ъr, otherwise r r r trg, krčma trg, krčma
syllabic ŕ ESl. er, PL ar/ierz, BG ъr, otherwise r ŕ r dŕžati, smŕť držati, smrt
syllabic l RU/SL/MK ol, BE/UK ou, PL oł/łu/eł, CZ/SK l/lu, BCMS u, BG ъl òl ol dòlg, kòlbasa dolg, kolbasa
syllabic ĺ RU/SL/MK ol, BE/UK ou, PL oł/łu/eł/il, CZ/SK l/lu, BCMS u, BG ъl òl ol tòlsty, vòlk tolsty, volk
pj, bj, mj, vj ESl./SSl. plj, blj..., WSl. p, b... pj, bj, mj, vj pj, bj, mj, vj zemja, stavjų zemja, stavju
lь, lj
nь, nj
ESl./PL ľ/ń, otherwise ľ/l, ń/n ľ, lj
ń, nj
lj
nj
ľubiti, hvaljeńje
deń, hrånjeńje
ljubiti, hvaljenje
deń, hranjenje
rь, rj RU/PL/CZ/SL ŕ, otherwise r ŕ, rj rj caŕ, tvorjeńje carj, tvorjenje

RU/UK/SK ť/ď, PL/BE ć/dź, CZ/SSl. t/d ť
ď
t
d
kosť
dóžď
kost
dožd

ESl./PL ś/ź, otherwise s/z ś
ź
s
z
loś
knęź
los
knez
sj
zj
everywhere š/ž š
ž
š
ž
prošų
žeńje
prošu
teženje
tj, kt
dj, gd
ESl./SL č, WSl. c, BCMS ć, MK kj, BG št
ESl. ž, PL dz, CZ/SK z, SL d/j, BCMS đ, MK gj, BG žd
ć
đ
č
svěća, noć
među
svěča, noč
meu
šč CZ/SK/SSl. št, otherwise šč šč šč ščetka ščetka
tl, dl ESl./SSl. l, WSl. tl/dl l l moliti, grlo moliti, grlo
g UK/BY/CZ/SK h, otherwise g g g glåva, jego glava, jego
lьje, nьje
rьje
tьje, dьje
sьje, zьje
RU lije/nije, UK llja/nnja, PL le/nie, CZ lí/ní, SK lie/nie, SL/SH/MK lje/nje, BG l(i)e/n(i)e ľje, ńje
ŕje
ťje, ďje
śje, źje
lje, nje
rje
tje, dje
sje, zje
usiľje, dělańje, primoŕje, žiťje, orųďje, podlěśje usilje, dělanje, primorje, žitje, orudje, podlěsje

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International vocabulary

The Slavs do not live on an island, and over the centuries their languages have borrowed many non-Slavic words as well. Part of those words were taken from their direct neighbours (German, Romance, Turkish). Vocabulary of this type has rarely found its way to the entire language family. For example, German loans are much more frequent in West Slavic than in Russian or Bulgarian, while words of Turkish descent can be found in South Slavic more abundantly than in the other Slavic languages. As a result, most of this vocabulary is not commonly understood and therefore not used in Interslavic.

Another category is international vocabulary, mostly from Latin and Greek, but later also from French and more recently English. Words of this type tend to be similar throughout Europe and other parts of the world. They constitute an integral part of every Slavic language and can be of great help in achieving mutual intelligibility, especially among the more educated. International words are practically identical in every language, and there are hardly any variations in meaning. When we borrow international vocabulary, we stay as close as possible to spelling of the original word, adapting it only as far as orthography requires. However, especially for Graeco-Latin vocabulary goes the following:

Besides, endings are adapted in a predictable way to what is most common in the Slavic languages:

More problematic are words borrowed from English. When writing in the Latin alphabet, we can keep the original spelling (bypass, knockout, jazz, teenager). However, many texts in Interslavic are written in Cyrillic or in both orthographies parallelly, often with the help of a transliteration program, and one should of course avoid writing быпасс in Cyrillic! In most cases, we would therefore rather apply a more phonetical approach: bajpas, nokaut, džaz, tinejdžer, budžet, biznes, mjuzikl, futbol, koktejl, etc..