Personal   •   Reflexive   •   Possessive   •   Demonstrative   •   Relative   •   Interrogative   •   Indefinite   •   Pronominal adverbs

Personal and reflexive pronouns (Osobne i svratne zaimenniky)

Personal pronouns have six cases—the same as nouns but without the vocative. The reflexive pronoun sebe is inflected like ty, tebe, ..., the only difference being that it does not have a nominative.

The forms between brackets are clitic forms, i.e. they are weaker and always unstressed. Se is used in reflexive verbs: Ja myju se „I'm washing myself”. If it needs to be stressed, the longer form is used: Ja myju jedino sebe „I wash nobody but myself”. After a preposition, it is better to use the longer forms: k mně, za tebe.

Singular Plural Reflexive
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
masc. neut. fem. masc.anim. other
Nom ja ty on ono ona my vy oni one
Acc mene (me) tebe (te) jego (go) ju nas vas jih je sebe (se)
Gen mene tebe jego jej jih sebe
Dat mně (mi) tobě (ti) jemu (mu) jej nam vam jim sobě (si)
Ins mnoju toboju jim jeju nami vami jimi soboju
Loc mně tobě jim jej nas vas jih sobě


  1. After a preposition, all pronouns of the third person are preceded by n-: jego > do njego; jim > pri njim, etc. (for that reason, the locative forms jim, jej and jih never occur, as the locative is always preceded by a preposition)
  2. If you are curious how these forms relate to the Slavic languages, you can see them compared here.

A few notes regarding usage:

Possessive pronouns (Prisvojiteljne zaimenniky)

The possessive pronouns are inflected like adjectives, except for the zero ending in the masculine singular. The forms are:

In the third person, it is most common to use the genitive of the corresponding personal pronoun: jego, jej, jih. These forms are not inflected. Alternatively, one can also use the following forms, which are declined like adjectives:

Whenever the possessor is also the subject of the sentence, the reflexive svoj is used, no matter whether this subject is in the third person or not: Ja myju svoje avto „I am washing my car”. Note the difference in meaning when the reflexive pronoun refers to a subject in the third person:

Pjotr dal Ivanu svoju knigu „Pjotr gave Ivan his [= Pjotr's] book”
Pjotr dal Ivanu jegovu knigu „Pjotr gave Ivan his [= Ivan's] book”.

There are also interrogative, definite and indefinite possessive pronouns: čij „whose”, ničij „nobody's”, něčij „somebody's”, etc. They are inflected like moj. For more forms, see the section about correlatives.

Just like adjectives, possessive pronouns correspond with the noun they modify in gender, number and case. Except for the masculine nominative and accusative singular, their declension is identical to that of adjectives (moj, tvoj, naš, vaš, svoj and čij like svěži; jegov, jejin and jihny like dobry):

singular plural
neuter feminine masculine
neuter feminine
Nom moj moje moja moji moje
Acc mojego moj moju mojih
Gen mojego mojej mojih
Dat mojemu mojej mojim
Ins mojim mojeju mojimi
Loc mojem mojej mojih

Demonstrative pronouns (Ukazateljne zaimenniky)

The primary demonstrative pronoun is toj „this, that”, and it should be used whenever there is no need to distinguish explicitly between this one over here and that one over there.

If we need to be more precise, the simplest solution is using tutoj for „this” and tamtoj for „that, yonder”. They are declined as follows:

singular plural
neuter feminine masculine
neuter feminine
Nom toj to ta ti te
Acc togo toj tu tyh
Gen togo toj tyh
Dat tomu toj tym
Ins tym toju tymi
Loc tom toj tyh


  1. Less simple, but historically more accurate, is the following three-way distinction: sej (f. sa, n. se) for „this”, toj for „that” and onoj for „yonder”. It should be remembered, however, that sej has practically vanished from most modern languages except for a few fossilized remnants. It may therefore not always be clear.
  2. Another demonstrative pronoun is ov, meaning the same thing as sej. However, its meaning is very different in the modern languages.
  3. Tutoj, tamtoj, ov and onoj are declined like toj.
  4. Instead of the plurals tyh, tym and tymi one might sometimes encounter těh, těm and těmi.

Relative pronouns (Odnositeljne zaimenniky)

The relative pronoun that is used most frequently is ktory. It is inflected like an ordinary adjective. Alternatively, South Slavic koj (inflected like moj) can be used as well. Their meanings are identical and they can be used interchangably.

A third option is the more archaic iže – used in the nominative for all genders, both singular and plural; in other cases it is inflected like a form of the personal pronoun on/ona/ono with the suffix -že: jegože, jemuže etc.

Interrogative pronouns (Pytateljne zaimenniky)

The interrogative pronouns are kto „who” and čto (or što) „what”. They are inflected as follows:

who? what?
Nom kto čto
Acc kogo
Gen čego
Dat komu čemu
Ins kym čim
Loc kom čem

Interrogative determiners are koj (inflected like moj) „which” (instead, ktory can be used as well), the possessive pronoun čij „whose” (see above), and the adjective kaky „what kind of”.

Indefinite pronouns (Neoznačiteljne zaimenniky)

This is a large group of pronouns and determiners, most of which are derived regularly from the interrogative pronouns. There are several categories:

Referring to all items (universal) (vs-): vsi or vsekto „everyone, everybody”, vse or vsečto „everything”; ves (f. vsa, n. vse „whole, entire; all”); cěly „whole, entire”; vsaky „each, every”; vsekaky „each kind of, all sorts of”; vsečij „everybody's”.

Refering to no items (negative) (ni-): nikto „no one, nobody”, ničto „nothing”, nikoj, nijedin and nikaky „not a single, none”, ničij „nobody's”.

Referring a single unspecified item (ně-): někto „someone, somebody”, něčto „something”, někoj „some”, někaky „some kind of”, něčij „someone's, somebody's”.

Referring to several unspecified items (poně–): poněkoj „some, several”, poněkaky „several kinds of”.

Referring to a large group of items: mnogy „much, many, a lot of”.

Referring to any member of a group (-koli, -nebud, libo-): ktokoli, libokto, kto-nebud „anyone, anyone”, čtokoli, libočto, čto-nebud „anything”; kojkoli, libokoj, koj-nebud „any”, kakykoli, libokaky, kaky-nebud „any kind of”; čijkoli, libočij, čij-nebud „anyone's, anybody's”. To indicate indifference, the adverb bylo can be used: bylo kto „no matter who, just anybody”, bylo čto „no matter what”, etc.

Referring to another item of a group (in-): inokto „someone else”, inočto „something else”, iny „other”, inočij „someone else's”.

Vsekto, nikto, něčto, čtokoli etc. are inflected like kto and čto. Likewise, nikoj, něčij etc. are inflected like koj and čij (and thus like moj). Ves is inflected as follows:

singular plural
neuter feminine masculine
neuter feminine
Nom ves vse vsa vsi vse
Acc vsego ves vsu vsih
Gen vsego vsej vsih
Dat vsemu vsej vsim
Ins vsim vseju vsimi
Loc vsem vsej vsih

Pronominal adverbs (Zaimenne prislovniky)

One of Zamenhof's best inventions was his table of correlatives, a group of interrelated pronouns, adjectives and adverbs. There words have been kept as regular as possible, but not at the expense of recognisability for speakers of Slavic languages. A few virtually impossible words have been left out, and a few other regular forms have been replaced by forms that are common in the natural languages. Irregular forms (i.e. not looking the way they should according to the table) are shown in italics.

k-nebud, k-koli
which? koj sej,
onoj někoj poněkoj koj-nebud kojkoli nikoj, nijedin vsaky iny
who? kto někto kto-nebud ktokoli nikto vsekto, vsi inokto
what? čto se to ono něčto poněčto čto-nebud čtokoli ničto vsečto, vse inočto
how much? koliko seliko toliko onoliko několiko koliko-nebud kolikokoli
whose? čij něčij čij-nebud čijkoli ničij vsečij inočij
what kind of? kaky saky taky onaky někaky poněkaky kaky-nebud kakykoli nikaky vsaky inaky
how? kako sako tako onako někako poněkako kako-nebud kakokoli nikako vsako inako
where? kde sde, tu tude, tam onde někde poněkde kde-nebud kdekoli nikde vesde inde
whereto? kamo samo tamo onamo někamo kamo-nebud kamokoli nikamo vsamo inamo
when? kogda segda, sejčas togda onogda někogda poněkogda kogda-nebud kogdakoli nikogda vsegda inogda
whither? kudy sudy tudy onudy někudy kudy-nebud kudykoli nikudy vsudy inudy
whence? odkudy odsudy odtudy odonudy odněkudy odkudy-nebud odkudykoli odnikudy odvsudy odinudy
why? (purpose) čemu tomu něčemu čemu-nebud čemukoli ničemu
why? (reason) začto zato zaněčto začto-nebud začtokoli zaničto