Relay 10/R

List of translations

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a: query pronoun
adak': was (3rd person singular past tense form of 'to be')
adei: are (1st person dual present tense form of 'to be')
apreib-: speak, tell
aralaya: bothersome, annoying, repetitive
aran-: eat
avreezhei: will be (1st person dual future tense form of 'to be')
byathrad-: care for, attend, parent
chei: I (1st person singular pronoun)
chim-: to understand, to comprehend
dajei: in order to
e: Indicates a yes/no question follow
ee: Exclamation of strong emotion
eecha: this
eeyam-: rend, separate violently into pieces
elasa: because
feis: enter, come
gadyeeg-: entertain, occupy the attention of something
glei: he, she, it (3rd person singular pronoun)
k'sheenak': jealous
kar-: come to pass, happen
kari: event
keem-: sing, chant
ki: masculine, male
m'geishla: good-looking, healthy, strong
misha: dwelling
pleegrei: and (used to adjoin clauses)
preethee: person
preethleen: child
shree: feminine, female
teidhlee: we two (1st person dual pronoun)
teira: cruel, hurtful, nasty
thradei: parent
yei: not (negates a verb)
yeiree: no one
zav-: play


Rebecca Harbison

Ring B

Ee! E karedheia karijem' eechafrei?
Dajei byathrad'vree preethleenmich',
feisleedak' preetheeflee shreebyei m'geishlabyei mishamich' teidhleetya.
Dajei gadyeeg'vree thradeimich' kibyei cheislee,
pleegrei keemleedak' gleiflee gleimich'
pleegrei zavizheega.
Elasa adak' thradeimich kibyei gleislee teirabyei m'geishlathree,
pleegrei eeyamleedak' gleiflee gleimich'
pleegrei aranleedak' gleiflee gleimich'
Adei teidhleegyei afa?
Avreezhei teidhleegyei afa?
Apreibeeseb' k'sheenak'mich' aralayathree:
"Yei chimigyei cheimich."
Apreibikrei cheiflee karijem' eechfrei yeireethree.

"Alas! Did this really happen?
An attractive woman entered our home in order to care for the child.
She sang to and played with my father in order to entertain him.
Because my father was cruel to her, she tore him apart and ate him.
What are we?
What will we become?
The jealous one told the annoying one: "I do not understand."
I tell no one of these events."


Ee! E kar-edheia kari-jem' eecha-frei?
Dajei byathrad-'vree preethleen-mich',
feis-leedak' preethee-flee shree-byei m'geishla-byei misha-mich' 
Dajei gadyeeg-'vree thradei-mich' ki-byei chei-slee, 
pleegrei keem-leedak' glei-flee glei-mich'
pleegrei zav-izheega.
Elasa adak' thradei-mich ki-byei glei-slee teira-byei m'geishla-three,
pleegrei eeyam-leedak' glei-flee glei-mich'
pleegrei aran-leedak' glei-flee glei-mich'
Adei teidhlee-gyei a-fa?
Avreezhei teidhlee-gyei a-fa?
Apreib-eeseb' k'sheenak'-mich' aralaya-three: 
"Yei chim-igyei chei-mich."
Apreib-ikrei chei-flee kari-jem' eech-frei yeiree-three.  


Byashrei is a VSO language. Therrmodify. Verbs are conjugated balural and dual. Adjectives nse. Transitive, intertransitive, and reflexive are conjugated differently -- a few verbs ased on number, person and tense. Transitive, intertransitive, and reflexive are conjugated differently -- a few verbs are irregular (to be is the only one used here) and I will present those separatly in the glossary. I also will present the verb stem (as opposed to the infinitive form) in the glossary.

The following cases were used:

  • Absolutive: The subject in intertransitive sentances, the direct object in transitive sentances.
  • Egrative: The subject in transitive sentances.
  • Dative: The indirect object.
  • Genitive: The possessive


  • Intertransitive: Just happened. "I ran"
  • Transitive: Happened to something. "I washed my dog."
  • Reflexive: Happened to the subject. "I washed myself."

Grammatical Bits

-'vree: Infinitive verb
-byei: Singular adjective
-edheia: 3rd person, plural intertransitive verb, present tense
-eeseb': 3rd person, singular intertransitive verb, past tense
-fa: Dual absolutive noun
-flee: Singular ergative noun
-frei: Plural adjective.
-gyei: Dual ergative noun.
-igyei: 1st person, singular intertransitive verb, present tense
-ikrei: 1st person, singular transitive verb, present tense
-izheega: 3rd person, dual reflexive verb, past tense
-jem': Plural absolutive no noun
-three: Singular dativeular transitive verb, past tense
-mich': Singular absolutive noun
-slee: Singular genitiveingular past tense form of 'to noun
-tya: Dual genitive noun

© Jan van Steenbergen, Rebecca Harbison, 15 Aug. 2004