VERBS

Verbal typesPresent tensePast tensePerfect tenseFuture tenseConditionalImperativeParticiplesGerundPassive formsIrregular verbs

Verbal types

Vozgian has a rather rich conjugational system, directly inherited from the Common Slavic period. It has three persons and three numbers; apart from the singular and plural, Vozgian also has a dual, although it is mostly used in very official or very posh speech. Furthermore, there are the two aspects (perfective, imperfective; also found in other Slavic languages), four tenses (present, past, perfect, future), three moods (indicative, conditional, imperative), and a number of other forms (infinitive, participles, supine). Vozgian verbs can be subdivided into nine classes:


CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS

The present tense

As shown above, most verb classes have two different stems: one to which the present tense endings are attached (not only the "proper" present, but also the present participles and the imperative), and one to which those of the remaining tenses and moods are attached. There is little variation between the endings of the different classes. In the present tense, they come together in four groups:

  Class
123456789
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
дялаў
дялаш
дялаћ
умяў
умяш
умяћ
кажö
кажеш
кажећ
крічö
крічіш
крічіћ
мöлö
мöліш
мöліћ
вярјö
вярјеш
вярјећ
двікнo
двікнеш
двікнећ
біјö
біјеш
біјећ
несo
несеш
несећ
1 du.
2/3 du.
дялаве
дялате
умяве
умяте
кажеве
кажете
крічіве
крічіте
мöліве
мöліте
вярјеве
вярјете
двікневе
двікнете
біјеве
біјете
несеве
несете
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
дяламу
дялате
дяланћ
умяму
умяте
умянћ
кажему
кажете
кажoнћ
крічіму
крічіте
кріченћ
мöліму
мöліте
мöленћ
вярјему
вярјете
вярјöнћ
двікнему
двікнете
двікнoнћ
біјему
біјете
біјöнћ
несему
несете
несoнћ

Present tense forms can be used for both perfective and imperfective verbs. However, there is a difference in meaning. The present tense of an imperfective verbs denotes an action that factually takes place either presently or habitually. The present tense of a perfective verb indicates, that the action (from the point of view of the present) will be completed, sooner rather than later.


The past tense

The past tense is the result of a merger between the Common Slavic aorist and imperfect tense. In the case of imperfective verbs, it indicates an action that was taking place at some point in the past, or that used to take place in the past; in the case of perfective verbs, it indicates an action that had been completed on the moment of reference in the past (thus effectively fulfilling the fole of a pluperfect).

The forms can be derived directly from the infinitive.

  Class
123456789
1/2/3 sg. дялах умях казах крічах мöліх вярвўах двікнoх біх несах
1 du.
2/3 du.
дялахўе
дялаште
умяхўе
умяште
казахўе
казаште
крічахўе
крічаште
мöліхўе
мöліште
вярвўахўе
вярвўаште
двікнoхўе
двікнoште
біхўе
біште
несахўе
несаште
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
дялахум
дялаште
дялахo
умяхум
умяште
умяхo
казахум
казаште
казахo
крічахум
крічаште
крічахo
мöліхум
мöліште
мöліхo
вярвўахум
вярвўаште
вярвўахo
двікнoхум
двікнoште
двікнoхo
біхум
біште
біхo
несахум
несаште
несахo


The perfect tense

Like in several other Slavic languages, the perfect tense is the result of a contraction of the resultative participle, which is characterised by the ending –л-, and the present tense forms of the verb быће "to be". It is encountered with perfective verbs only, indication an action that has been completed. The past tense is the result of a merger between the Common Slavic aorist and imperfect tense. In the case of imperfective verbs, it indicates an action that was taking place at some point in the past, or that used to take place in the past; in the case of perfective verbs, it indicates an action that had been completed on the moment of reference in the past.

The forms can be derived directly from the infinitive.

  Class
123456789
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
судялалу
судялалеш
судялал
умялу
умялеш
умял
пoказалу
пoказалеш
пoказал
вўыкрічалу
вўыкрічалеш
вўыкрічал
сумöлілу
сумöлілеш
сумöліл
пoвярвўалу
пoвярвўалеш
пoвярвўал
пöдвікнoлу
пöдвікнoлеш
пöдвікнoл
сюбілу
сюбілеш
сюбіл
пoнеслу
пoнеслеш
пoнесел
1 du.
2/3 du.
судялалве
судялалте
умялве
умялте
пoказалве
пoказалте
вўыкрічалве
вўыкрічалте
сумöлілве
сумöлілте
пoвярвўалве
пoвярвўалте
пöдвікнoлве
пöдвікнoлте
сюбілве
сюбілте
пoнеселве
пoнеселте
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
судялалму
судялалте
судялалі
умялму
умялте
умялі, -лаје
пoказалму
пoказалте
пoказалі
вўыкрічалму
вўыкрічалте
вўыкрічалі
сумöлілму
сумöлілте
сумöлілі
пoвярвўалму
пoвярвўалте
пoвярвўалі
пöдвікнoлму
пöдвікнoлте
пöдвікнoлі
сюбілму
сюбілте
сюбілі
пoнеселму
пoнеселте
пoнеслі

Notes:

  1. The forms or the third persons singular and plural are masculine only; feminine and neuter equivalents are дялала/дялалу etc. for the singular, and дялалы/дялала etc. for the plural. These forms are due to Russian influence rather than inherited from Common Slavic.
  2. The verb умяће is imperfective, and so these actually non-existent forms are displayed only to demonstrate them conjugation-wise. Умяће "to be able" has no perfective equivalent.
  3. As can be clearly seen from the remaining (perfective) verbs, the hard mutation (unvoiced consonants become voiced before the stressed syllable, while voiced consonants become fricatives) rarely or never applies to prefixed verbs. Thus we have судялаће, пoказаће, сюбіће instead of *суђялаће, *пoгазаће, *сювіће. On the other hand, the prefix is not spared from Umlaut, hence пöдвікнoће and not *пoдвікнoће.


The future tense

The future tense appears mostly in imperfective verbs, because the present tense of perfective verbs is already a future in itself. Nevertheless, perfective verbs sometimes appear in the future tense too, indicating that sometime in the remote future an action will be completed.

The future is a compound form, consisting of the future tense of the verb быће and a form derived from the ancient supine. This form can simply be obtained by replacing the infinitive ending -ће with (or, in the case of Class 7, with -нт), and like the infinitive it is undeclinable.

Thus, we get the following forms:

  Class 1-9
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
ас бoндo дялат, умят, казат, крічат, мöліт, вярвўат, двікнoнт, біт, нест
ты бoндеш ...
ет (ета, ету) бoндећ ...
1 du.
2 du.
3 du.
на бoндеве дялат, умят, казат, крічат, мöліт, вярвўат, двікнoнт, біт, нест
ва бoндете ...
еја (еје, еје) бoндете ...
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
мы бoндему дялат, умят, казат, крічат, мöліт, вярвўат, двікнoнт, біт, нест
вўы бoндете ...
іће (еты, іта) бoндoнћ ...


The conditional

Exactly like the perfect tense, the conditional the result of a contraction of the resultative participle with the verb быће "to be", but this time not the present but the past tense forms. It can be used both with imperfective and perfective verbs.

  Class
123456789
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
дялалбам
дялалбаш
дялалбы
умялбам
умялбаш
умялбы
казалбам
казалбаш
казалбы
крічалбам
крічалбаш
крічалбы
мöлілбам
мöлілбаш
мöлілбы
вярвўалбам
вярвўалбаш
вярвўалбы
двікнoлбам
двікнoлбаш
двікнoлбы
білбам
білбаш
білбы
неселбам
неселбаш
неселбы
1 du.
2/3 du.
дялалбыве
дялалбыте
умялбыве
умялбыте
казалбыве
казалбыте
крічалбыве
крічалбыте
мöлілбыве
мöлілбыте
вярвўалбыве
вярвўалбыте
двікнoлбыве
двікнoлбыте
білбыве
білбыте
неселбыве
неселбыте
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
дялалбыму
дялалбыте
дялалібы
умялбыму
умялбыте
умялібы
казалбыму
казалбыте
казалібы
крічалбыму
крічалбыте
крічалібы
мöлілбыму
мöлілбыте
мöлілібы
вярвўалбыму
вярвўалбыте
вярвўалібы
двікнoлбыму
двікнoлбыте
двікнoлібы
білбыму
білбыте
білібы
неселбыму
неселбыте
неслібы


The imperative

The imperative is derived from the present tense stems. It is characterised by the ending in classes 1, 2 and 6, and by umlaut in the remaining classes.

  Class
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2 sg. дялай умяй кяж кріч мöл вяруй двік бій ніс
2 du./pl. дялайте умяйте кяжіте крічіте мöліте вяруйте двікте бійте ністе


Participles

Vozgian verbs can generate no less than four participles, not even including the supine, which has found itself a home with the future tense. It has separate forms for the present active, present passive, perfect active, and perfect passive.

  Class
123456789
Present active дяланћы умянћы каженћы кріченћы мöленћы вярјöнћы двікнoнћы біјöнћы несoнћы
Present passive дяламы умямы кажамы крічамы мöлјамы вярјамы двікнoмы біјöмы несoмы
Perfect active судялаўшы умяўшы пoказаўшы вўыкрічаўшы сумöлшы пoвярвўашы пöдвікшы сюбішы пoнесешы
Present passive судяланы умяны пoказаны вўыкрічены сумöлены пoвярвўаны пöдвікты сюбіты (*) пoнесены

(*) The ending -ты instead of -ны is not confined to class 8, nor does it apply to all verbs of this class. It occurs with a limited number of (usually very short) verbs.


The gerund

Not strictly a verbal form, but nevertheless derived regularly from the perfect passive participle, is the verbal noun, the gerund. It is built by substituting the ending -ны by -нје, resp. -ты by -ће. It is declined as a neuter noun of class 13 (in the case of -нје) or 12 (in the case of -ће).

  Class
123456789
Gerund дяланје умянје казанје кріченје мöленје вярвўанје двікће біће несенје

Many gerunds have a meaning additional to their "standard meaning": дяланје can both mean "doing" and "activity", іманје can both mean "possessing" and "possession".


Passive forms

Passive forms are not frequently used in Vozgian. When necessary, however, it can be created using a combination of a form of the verb быће "to be" and one of the passive participles. The different possilities are displayed in the following table:

  Aspect
imperfectiveperfective
Present tense ас біјöмы есу "I am (being) hit" (non-existent)
Past tense ас біјöмы бях "I was (being) hit" ас сюбіты бях "I had been hit"
Perfect tense (non-existent) ас сюбіты есу "I have been hit"
Future tense ас біјöмы бoндo "I will be hit" ас сюбіты бoндo "I will have been hit"
Conditional ас біјöмы бялбам "I would be hit" ас сюбіты бялбам "I would have been hit"


Irregular verbs

Many verbs in Vozgian are conjugated irregularly. The conjugation of the most frequently used is given below:

  быће "to be"
PresentPastPerfectFutureConditionalImperativeParticiples
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
есу
еш
ећ
бях
бях
бях
бялу
бялеш
бял
бoндo
бoндеш
бoндећ
бялбам
бялбаш
бялбы

бoнћ
Present active: бoндoнћы
Present passive:
Perfect active: бяўшы
1 du.
2/3 du.
есве
есте
бяхўе
бяште
бялве
бялте
бoндеве
бoндете
бялбыве
бялбыте

Perfect passive: —
Supine
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
есму
есте
сoнћ
бяхум
бяште
бяхoн
бялму
бялте
бялі
бoндему
бoндете
бoндoнћ
бялбыму
бялбыте
бялібы

бoнсте
быт
Gerund
быће

  даће "to give"
PresentPastPerfectConditionalImperativeParticiples
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
даў
даш
даћ
дах
дах
дах
далу
далеш
дал
далбам
далбаш
далбы

дай
Present active: дадoнћы
Present passive: дамы
Perfect active: даўшы
1 du.
2/3 du.
даве
дасте
дахўе
даште
далве
далте
далбыве
далбыте

Perfect passive: даты
Supine
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
даму
дасте
дадoнћ
дахум
даште
дахoн
далму
далте
далі
далбыму
далбыте
далібы

дайте
дат
Gerund
данје

  ідеће "to go"
PresentPastPerfectConditionalImperativeParticiples
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
іђo
іђеш
іђећ
іђoх
іђoх
іђoх
шелу
шелеш
шел
шелбам
шелбаш
шелбы

іћ
Present active: іђoнћы
Present passive:
Perfect active: шеўшы
1 du.
2/3 du.
іђеве
іђесте
іђoхўе
іђoште
шелве
шелте
шелбыве
шелбыте

Perfect passive: —
Supine
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
іђему
іђете
іђoнћ
іђoхум
іђoште
іђoхoн
шелму
шелте
шелі
шелбыму
шелбыте
шелібы

іђіте
ідет
Gerund

  мöхће "can, to be able"
PresentPastPerfectConditionalImperativeParticiples
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
мoғу
мoжеш
мoжећ
мoжах
мoжах
мoжах
мoглу
мoглеш
мoгел
мoгелбам
мoгелбаш
мoгелбы


Present active: мoғoнћы
Present passive:
Perfect active: мoгшы
1 du.
2/3 du.
мoжеве
мoжете
мoжахўе
мoжаште
мoгелве
мoгелте
мoгелбыве
мoгелбыте

Perfect passive: —
Supine
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
мoжему
мoжете
мoғoнћ
мoжахум
мoжаште
мoжахoн
мoгелму
мoгелте
мoглі
мoгелбыму
мoгелбыте
мoглібы


мoхт
Gerund
мöхће

  хoтяће "to want"
PresentPastPerfectConditionalImperativeParticiples
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
хöћу
хoћеш
хoтећ
хoтах
хoтах
хoтах
хoтялу
хoтялеш
хoтял
хoтялбам
хoтялбаш
хoтялбы


Present active: хoћoнћы
Present passive: хoћамы
Perfect active: хoтяўшы
1 du.
2/3 du.
хoћеве
хoћете
хoтахўе
хoташте
хoтялве
хoтялте
хoтялбыве
хoтялбыте

Perfect passive: хoтяны
Supine
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
хoћему
хoћете
хöћoнћ
хoтахум
хoташте
хoтахoн
хoтялму
хoтялте
хoтялі
хoтялбыму
хoтялбыте
хoтялібы


хoтят
Gerund
хoтенје