Vozgian – Nouns

NOUNS

IntroductionArticlesNoun declensionFeminine nounsMasculine nounsNeuter nouns

INTRODUCTION

Vozgian nouns, pronouns and adjectives have a rich declension, distinguishing between three genders, three numbers and thirteen cases. Furtermore, Vozgian nouns have a definite and indefinite declension. The combination of these factors result in a grand total of 75 forms per noun, giving the language a mildly agglutinative look.

The genders are: masculine, feminine and neuter. In this respect Vozgian is not different from any other Slavic language, nor, for that matter, from most other Indo-European languages.

The numbers are: singular, dual and plural. The dual is not used too frequently; it appears predominantly in posh or overly official speech, and in official documents.

There are thirteen cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, benefactive, instrumental, comitative, locative, elative, illative, ablative, allative. The normal Slavic cases are not different in their usage from other Slavic languages: the nominative indicates the subject of a sentence; the vocative (different from the nominative only in a few instances) is used for addressing people or objects; the accusative indicates the object of the sentence; the genitive indicates possession; the dative indicates the indirect object (the person - or sometimes object - to whom something is given or said); and the instrumental is used to indicate the instrument or means, by which an action is performed, and like in other Slavic languages it is also used to indicate a predicate.
The locative also belongs to the “standard” Slavic cases, but there is one difference: it can be used with or without a preposition. In the latter case, it indicates place without being more specific. This "naked" locative is used when the exact location of the subject is obvious or insignificant; depending on context, it can be translated as "in", "at", "on", etc. For example: "in Russia", "at school", "in the kitchen". Prepositions can be used to express the exact location explicitly, as can the prefixes "vŭe-" (in) and "na-" (on).
The remaining cases are the result of a process of agglutination: prepositions became postpositions, postpositions became suffixes, and suffixes became cases.
The benefactive has the simple meaning "for" and indicates that this noun is the recipient or takes the benefit of an action; it originates from the Common Slavic preposition *dьlja. The comitative (from *sъ) expresses accompaniment and can be translated as "with".
At last, there are four lative cases: the elative (from *ьz) expresses motion out of a location, the illative (from *do) into a location, the ablative (from *odъ) away from a location, and the allative (from *kъ) towards a location.


ARTICLES

Vozgian has no real articles. However, each noun has two declensions: a definite and an indefinite declension. The definite declension is characterised by the following postpositions, which fulfill the function of definite articles:

 singulardualplural
masc./neut.fem.masc./fem./neut.masc./fem./neut.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
-t/-tu
-t/-tu
-tu
-tumu
-tola
-täm
-tämes
-tum
-toz
-todu
-tŭod
-tuk
-ta
-te
-tuj
-tuj
-töla
-tjö
-tuz
-tuj
-tuz
-tödu
-tŭod
-tuk
-tai/-þe/-te
-tai/-þe/-te
-tü
-täma
-tüla
-täma
-tämas
-tü
-tüz
-tüdu
-tüvŭod
-tämak
-þe/-tai/-ta
-þe/-tai/-ta
-täch
-täm
-täla
-täme
-tämis
-täch
-täz
-tädu
-tächŭod
-tämek


NOUN DECLENSION

The Vozgian nouns can be subdivided into sixteen classes (five masculine, five feminine, six neuter). It should be noted, however, that in some cases one class is merely a variation of another class, and that there are quite a lot of exceptions and irregular forms.


FEMININE NOUNS

Class 1. Consists of all feminine nouns with the ending -a, preceded by a hard consonant. Example: žena "woman".

1 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
žena (-u)
ženo
ženai
žene
ženaila
ženjö
ženjöns
žene
ženaz
ženaidu
ženajöd
ženäk
ženata
ženonte
ženaituj
ženätuj
ženaitöla
ženontjö
ženontjöns
ženätuj
ženaituz
ženaitödu
ženaitŭod
ženätuk
žene
žene
ženu
ženama
ženula
ženama
ženamas
ženu
ženuz
ženudu
ženuvŭod
ženamak
ženäþe
ženäþe
ženutü
ženantäma
ženutüla
ženantäma
ženantämas
ženutü
ženutüz
ženutüdu
ženutüvŭod
ženantämak
ženai
ženai
žen
ženam
ženela
žename
ženamis
ženach
ženez
ženedu
ženjöd
ženamek
ženaitai
ženaitai
ženutäch
ženantäm
ženutäla
ženantäme
ženantämis
ženatäch
ženutäz
ženutädu
ženutächŭod
ženantämek

Class 2. Consists of all feminine nouns with the ending-a, preceded by a soft consonant. Example: zemja "earth".

2 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
zemja (-je)
zemö
zemjai
zemje
zemila
zemjö
zemjöns
zemje
zemjaz
zemidu
zemijöd
zemik
zemjata
zemönte
zemituj
zemituj
zemitöla
zemöntjö
zemöntjöns
zemituj
zemituz
zemitödu
zemitŭod
zemituk
zemü
zemü
zemü
zemjama
zemüla
zemjama
zemjamas
zemü
zemüz
zemüdu
zemüvŭod
zemjamak
zemüþe
zemüþe
zemütü
zemjantäma
zemütüla
zemjantäma
zemjantämas
zemütü
zemütüz
zemütüdu
zemütüvŭod
zemantämak
zemje
zemje
zem
zemjam
zemjela
zemjame
zemjamis
zemjach
zemjez
zemjedu
zemjöd
zemjamek
zemjetai
zemjetai
zemütäch
zemjantäm
zemütäla
zemjantäme
zemjantämis
zemjatäch
zemütäz
zemütädu
zemütächŭod
zemjantämek

Class 3. Consists of most feminine nouns ending with a consonant (the Common Slavic i-stems), except for those that belong to class 4 and 5. Example: "axis".

3 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
oš (-e)

oše
oše
ošila
ošö
ošöns
oše
ošiz
ošidu
ošöd
ošik
ošeta
ošete
ošituj
ošituj
ošitöla
ošöntjö
ošöntjöns
ošituj
ošituz
ošitödu
ošitŭod
ošituk
oše
oše
ošü
ošema
ošela
ošema
ošemas
ošü
ošez
ošedu
ošüvŭod
ošemak
ošiþe
ošiþe
ošütü
ošentäma
ošütüla
ošentäma
ošentämas
ošütü
ošütüz
ošütüdu
ošütüvŭod
ošentämak
oše
oše
ošej
ošem
ošela
ošeme
ošemis
ošech
ošez
ošedu
ošejöd
ošemek
ošitai
ošitai
ošejtäch
ošentäm
ošejtäla
ošentäme
ošentämis
ošetäch
ošejtäz
ošejtädu
ošejtächŭod
ošentämek

Class 4. This class consists of all feminine substantivised adjectives with the ending -oþ, and is merely an extension of class 3. The only difference appears in the definite declension, where *-noþeta etc. have changed into -nosta etc. Example: iðenoþ "unit, unity".

4 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
iðenoþ (-e)
iðenoþ
iðenoþe
iðenoþe
iðenoþila
iðenoþö
iðenoþöns
iðenoþe
iðenoþiz
iðenoþidu
iðenoþöd
iðenoþik
iðenosta
iðenoste
iðenostuj
iðenostuj
iðenostöla
iðenostjö
iðenostjöns
iðenostuj
iðenostuz
iðenostödu
iðenostŭod
iðenostuk
iðenoþe
iðenoþe
iðenoþü
iðenoþema
iðenoþela
iðenoþema
iðenoþemas
iðenoþü
iðenoþez
iðenoþedu
iðenoþüvŭod
iðenoþemak
iðenoþiþe
iðenoþiþe
iðenostü
iðenostäma
iðenostüla
iðenostäma
iðenostämas
iðenostü
iðenostüz
iðenostüdu
iðenostüvŭod
iðenostämak
iðenoþe
iðenoþe
iðenoþej
iðenoþem
iðenoþela
iðenoþeme
iðenoþemis
iðenoþech
iðenoþez
iðenoþedu
iðenoþejöd
iðenoþemek
iðenostai
iðenostai
iðenostäch
iðenostäm
iðenostäla
iðenostäme
iðenostämis
iðenostäch
iðenostäz
iðenostädu
iðenostächŭod
iðenostämek

Class 5. This class consists of two words only: maþ "mother" and doč "daughter" (the Common Slavic r-stems).

5 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
maþ (-e)
maþ
materje
materje
materila
materjö
materjöns
materje
materiz
materidu
materjöd
materik
mateta
matete
matertuj
matertuj
matertöla
matertjö
matertjöns
matertuj
matertuz
matertödu
matertŭod
matertuk
materje
materje
materü
materma
materla
materü
matermas
materma
materez
materdu
matervŭod
matermak
materþe
materþe
matertü
matertäma
matertüla
matertäma
matertämas
matertü
matertüz
matertüdu
matertüvŭod
matertämak
materje
materje
materjej
materjem
materjela
materme
matermis
materjech
materjez
materjedu
materjöd
matermek
matertai
matertai
matertäch
matertäm
matertäla
matertäme
matertämis
matertäch
matertäz
matertädu
matertächŭod
matertämek


MASCULINE NOUNS

Class 6. Consists of those masculine nouns that end with -a preceded by a hard consonant. This class corresponds entirely with class 1; the only difference are the masculine case endings of the postfixed definite article. Example: sluha "servant".

6 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
sluha (-u)
sluho
sluhai
sluhe
sluhaila
sluhjö
sluhjöns
sluhe
sluhaz
sluhaidu
sluhajöd
sluhäk
sluhat
sluhont
sluhaitu
sluhätumu
sluhaitola
sluhontäm
sluhontämes
sluhätum
sluhaitoz
sluhaitodu
sluhaitŭod
sluhätuk
sluhe
sluhe
sluhu
sluhama
sluhula
sluhama
sluhamas
sluhu
sluhuz
sluhudu
sluhuvŭod
sluhamak
sluhetai
sluhetai
sluhutü
sluhantäma
sluhutüla
sluhantäma
sluhantämas
sluhutü
sluhutüz
sluhutüdu
sluhutüvŭod
sluhantämak
sluhai
sluhai
sluh
sluham
sluhela
sluhame
sluhamis
sluhach
sluhez
sluhedu
sluhjöd
sluhamek
sluhaiþe
sluhaiþe
sluhutäch
sluhantäm
sluhutäla
sluhantäme
sluhantämis
sluhatäch
sluhutäz
sluhutädu
sluhutächŭod
sluhantämek

Class 7. Idem, but the ending -a is preceded by a soft consonant. Roughly a combination of classes 6 and 2.

Class 8. Masculine words ending with a consonant, belonging to the Common Slavic o-stems. Example: rav "slave".

8 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
rav (-e)
rav
rava
ravu
ravala
ravum
ravumes
rave
ravaz
ravadu
ravŭod
ravuk
ravut
ravut
ravatu
ravutumu
ravatola
ravontäm
ravontämes
ravätum
ravatoz
ravatodu
ravatŭod
ravutuk
rava
rava
ravu
ravuma
ravula
ravuma
ravumas
ravu
ravuz
ravudu
ravŭod
ravumak
ravatai
ravatai
ravutü
ravontäma
ravontüla
ravontäma
ravontämas
ravutü
ravutüz
ravutüdu
ravutüvŭod
ravontämak
rävje
ravai
ravŭo
ravum
ravula
ravume
ravumis
raväch
ravuz
ravudu
ravŭod
ravumek
räviþe
ravaiþe
ravotäch
ravontäm
ravotäla
ravontäme
ravontämis
ravetäch
ravotäz
ravotädu
ravotächŭod
ravontämek

Class 9. Similarly, this class consists of masculine nouns ending with a consonant, but descended from the Common Slavic u-declension. Example: pol "half, side".

9 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
pol (-u)
pol
polu
poluje
polula
polum
polumes
polu
poluz
poludu
polvŭod
polujek
polet
polet
polutu
polutumu
polutola
polentäm
polentämes
polutum
polutuz
polutodu
polutŭod
polutuk
polai
polai
polŭo
poluma
polola
poluma
polumas
polŭo
poloz
polodu
polovŭod
polumak
polaitai
polaitai
polotü
polentäma
polotüla
polentäma
polentämas
polotü
polotüz
polotüdu
polotüvŭod
polentämak
polove
polai
polŭo
polum
polola
polume
polumis
poluch
poloz
polodu
polovŭod
polumek
poloveþe
polaiþe
polotäch
polentäm
polotäla
polentäme
polentämis
poletäch
polotäz
polotädu
polotächŭod
polentämek

Class 10. Consists of masculine nouns ending with a soft consonant. Like class 3, this class descends from the Common Slavic i-declension, and it has the same forms. Example: ponþ "path".

10 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
ponþ (-e)
ponþ
pönþe
pönþe
pönþila
pönþem
pönþemes
pönþe
pönþiz
pönþidu
pönþijöd
pönþik
pönþet
pönþet
pönþitu
pönþitumu
pönþitola
pönþentäm
pönþentämes
pönþitum
pönþitoz
pönþitodu
pönþitŭod
pönþituk
pönþe
pönþe
pönþü
pönþema
pönþüla
pönþema
pönþemas
pönþü
pönþüz
pönþüdu
pönþüvŭod
pönþemak
pönþitai
pönþitai
pönþütü
pönþentäma
pönþütüla
pönþentäma
pönþentämas
pönþütü
pönþütüz
pönþütüdu
pönþütüvŭod
pönþentämak
pönþe
pönþe
pönþej
pönþem
pönþela
pönþeme
pönþemis
pönþech
pönþez
pönþedu
pönþevŭod
pönþemek
pönþeþe
pönþeþe
pönþetäch
pönþentäm
pönþetäla
pönþentäme
pönþentämis
pönþetäch
pönþetäz
pönþetädu
pönþetächŭod
pönþentämek


NEUTER NOUNS

Class 11. Neuter nouns ending with -u (Common Slavic o-stems). Example: ognu "window".

11 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
ognu
ognu
ogna
ognu
ognala
ognum
ognumes
ogne
ognaz
ognadu
ognŭod
ognuk
ognotu
ognotu
ognatu
ognutumu
ognatola
ognontäm
ognontämes
ognätum
ognatoz
ognatodu
ognatŭod
ognutuk
okne
okne
oknu
oknuma
oknula
oknuma
oknumas
oknu
oknuz
oknudu
oknŭod
oknumak
oknäte
oknäte
oknutü
oknontäma
oknutüla
oknontäma
oknontämas
oknutü
oknutüz
oknutüdu
oknutüvŭod
oknontämak
okna
okna
oken
oknum
oknela
oknume
oknumis
oknech
oknez
oknedu
oknŭod
oknumek
oknata
oknata
oknetäch
oknontäm
oknetäla
oknontäme
oknontämis
oknetäch
oknetäz
oknetädu
oknetächŭod
oknontämek

Class 12. Neuter nouns ending with -e (preceded by a soft consonant, descends from the Common Slavic jo-stems). Example: morje "sea".

12 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
morje
morje
morja
morü
morjala
morüm
morümes
morü
morjaz
morjadu
morvŭod
morük
morjetu
morjetu
morjatu
morütumu
morjatola
moröntäm
moröntämes
morütum
morjatoz
morjatodu
morjatŭod
morütuk
mörje
mörje
mörü
mörüma
mörüla
mörüma
mörümas
mörü
mörüz
mörüdu
mörŭod
mörümak
mörjete
mörjete
mörütü
mörüntäma
mörütüla
mörüntäma
mörüntämas
mörütü
mörütüz
mörütüdu
mörütüvŭod
mörüntämak
mörja
mörja
mör
mörüm
mörjela
mörüme
mörümis
mörjech
mörjez
mörjedu
mörjöd
mörümek
mörjata
mörjata
mörjetäch
mörüntäm
mörjetäla
mörüntäme
mörüntämis
mörjetäch
mörjetäz
mörjetädu
mörjetächŭod
mörüntämek

Class 13. A variation of class 12, consisting of substantivised verbs with the ending -nje. The only difference with class 12 is that the definite article is attached directly to the root of the word. Example: imanje "possession".

13 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
imanje
imanje
imanja
imanü
imanjala
imanüm
imanümes
imanü
imanjaz
imanjadu
imanŭod
imanük
imantu
imantu
imantu
imantumu
imantola
imantäm
imantämes
imantum
imantoz
imantodu
imantŭod
imantuk
imanje
imanje
imanü
imanüma
imanüla
imanüma
imanümas
imanü
imanüz
imanüdu
imanŭod
imanümak
imante
imante
imantü
imantäma
imantüla
imantäma
imantämas
imantü
imantüz
imantüdu
imantüvŭod
imantämak
imanja
imanja
iman
imanüm
imanla
imanüme
imanümis
imanjech
imanjez
imandu
imanjöd
imanümek
imanta
imanta
imantäch
imantäm
imantäla
imantäme
imantämis
imantäch
imantäz
imantädu
imantächŭod
imantämek

Class 14. Neuter word ending with -e, gen. -enje, nom.pl. -ena. These are the Common Slavic n-stems. Example: ime "name".

14 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
ime
ime
imenje
imenje
imenila
imenjem
imenjemes
imenje
imeniz
imenidu
imenöd
imenik
imentu
imentu
imentu
imentumu
imentola
imentäm
imentämes
imentum
imentoz
imentodu
imentŭod
imentuk
imene
imene
imenu
imenema
imenula
imenema
imenemas
imenu
imenuz
imenudu
imenŭod
imenemak
imente
imente
imentü
imentäma
imentüla
imentäma
imentämas
imentü
imentüz
imentüdu
imentüvŭod
imentämak
imena
imena
imen
imenam
imenula
imename
imenamis
imenach
imenuz
imenudu
imenŭod
imenamek
imenta
imenta
imentäch
imentäm
imentäla
imentäme
imentämis
imentäch
imentäz
imentädu
imentächŭod
imentämek

Class 15. Neuter nouns ending with -e, gen. -ente (the Common Slavic nt-stems). Example: däte "child".

15 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
däte
däte
detente
detenþe
detentela
detenþem
detenþemes
detente
detentez
detentedu
detentöd
detenþik
dätentu
dätentu
detentu
detentumu
detentola
detentäm
detentämes
detentum
detentuz
detentodu
detentŭod
detentuk
denente
detente
detentu
detenþema
detentula
detenþema
detenþemas
detentu
detentuz
detentudu
detentŭod
detenþemak
detentete
detentete
detentü
detentäma
detentüla
detentäma
detentämas
detentü
detentüz
detentüdu
detentüvŭod
detentämak
detenta
detenta
detent
detenþem
detentula
detenþeme
detenþemis
detenþech
detentuz
detentudu
detentuvŭod
detenþemek
detentata
detentata
detentäch
detentäm
detentäla
detentäme
detentämis
detentäch
detentäz
detentädu
detentächŭod
detentämek

Class 16. A rather archaic group of neuter words ending with -u, gen. -ese (the Common Slavic s-stems). Example: slohu "word".

16 singular dual plural
indef.def.indef.def.indef.def.
Nom.Voc.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
slohu
slohu
slovese
sloveše
slovesela
slovesem
slovesemes
slovese
slovesez
slovesedu
slovesod
slovešik
slohutu
slohutu
slovestu
sloveštumu
slovestola
slovestäm
slovestämes
slovestum
slovestuz
slovestodu
slovestŭod
sloveštuk
slovese
slovese
slovesu
slovešema
slovesula
slovešema
slovešemas
slovesu
slovesuz
slovesedu
slovesŭod
slovešemak
slovestete
slovestete
slovestü
sloveštäma
slovestüla
sloveštäma
sloveštämas
slovestü
slovestüz
slovestüdu
slovestüvŭod
sloveštämak
slovesa
slovesa
sloves
slovešem
slovesela
slovešeme
slovešemis
slovešech
slovesuz
slovesedu
sloveštuvŭod
slovešemek
slovesta
slovesta
slovestutäch
sloveštäm
slovestutäla
sloveštäme
sloveštämis
sloveštäch
slovestäz
slovestädu
slovestächŭod
sloveštämek