Vozgian – Pronouns

PRONOUNS

Personal pronounsReflexive pronounPossessive pronounsDemonstrative pronounsInterrogative pronounsIndefinite pronounsTable of correlatives

Personal pronouns

The personal pronouns are declined according to the table below. Since pro-drop does not exist in Vozgian, their usage is always obligatory.

  1st person 2nd person 3rd person
masc.fem.neut.
Singular Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
as
me
mene
mje
menela
menjö
menjös
mene
menez
menedu
menjöd
mik
tai
te
teve
þe
tevela
tovjö
tevjös
teve
tevez
tevedu
tevjöd
þik
et
ehu
ehu
emu
ehola
im
imes
em
ehoz
edu
ehŭod
emuk
eta
onte
ej
ej
ejla
ontjö
ontjös
ej
ejez
ejdu
ejöd
ejek
etu
etu
etohu
etomu
etola
entem
entemes
entum
etoz
etodu
etovŭod
etomuk
Dual Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
na
na
najü
nama
najüla
nama
namas
najü
najüz
najüdu
najvŭod
namak
vŭa
vŭa
vŭajü
vŭama
vŭajüla
vŭama
vŭamas
vŭajü
vŭajüz
vŭajüdu
vŭajvŭod
vŭamak
eja
eja
ejü
ima
ejüla
ima
imas
ejü
ejüz
ejüdu
ejvŭod
imak
eje
eje
ejü
ima
ejüla
ima
imas
ejü
ejüz
ejüdu
ejvŭod
imak
eje
eje
ejü
ima
ejüla
ima
imas
ejü
ejüz
ejüdu
ejvŭod
imak
Plural Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
mai
nai
nas
nam
nasela
name
namis
nas
nasez
nasedu
nasŭod
namek
vŭai
vŭai
vŭas
vŭam
vŭasela
vŭame
vŭamis
vŭas
vŭasez
vŭasedu
vŭasŭod
vŭamek
iþe
etai
ich
im
ichela
ime
imis
ich
ichez
ichedu
ichŭod
imek
etai
etai
ich
im
ichela
ime
imis
ich
ichez
ichedu
ichŭod
imek
ita
ita
ich
im
ichela
ime
imis
ich
ichez
ichedu
ichŭod
imek


The reflexive pronoun

Like all other Slavic languages, Vozgian has only one reflexive pronoun, which, incidentally, also fulfills the role of reciprocal pronoun. It is inflected neither for gender, nor for number. It occurs mainly in reflexive verbs, where the accusative se- is prefixed to the verb root: maiþe "to wash" > semaiþe "to wash oneself, to take a bath".

 
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.

se
seve
še
sevela
sovjö
sevjös
seve
sevez
sevedu
sevjöd
šik


Possessive pronouns

Five possessive pronouns are known in Vozgian (or six, if one includes the interrogative čej "whose"): möj "my", tŭöj "thy, your (singular)", naš "our", vaš "your (plural)", and the reflexive sŭöj "my/your/his etc. own". There is no possessive equivalent for the dual personal pronouns.
Possessive pronouns of the third person are absent; when a possessive pronoun of the third person (i.e. not referring to the subject of the sentence) is needed, the genitive form of the corresponding personal pronoun is used: ehu "his", ej "her", etohu "its", ejü "their (dual)", ich "their (plural)".

  singular dual/plural reflexive
"one's own"
1st person
"my"
2nd person
"thy"
1st person
"our"
2nd person
"your"
Singular Masc.
Fem.
Neut.
möj
möja
möje
tŭöj
tŭöja
tŭöje
naš
naša
naše
vaš
vaša
vaše
sŭöj
sŭöja
sŭöje
Dual Masc.
Fem.
Neut.
möja
möje
möje
tŭöja
tŭöje
tŭöje
naša
näše
näše
vaša
väše
väše
sŭöja
sŭöje
sŭöje
Plural Masc.
Fem.
Neut.
möje
möje
möje
tŭöje
tŭöje
tŭöje
näše
naše
naše
väše
vaše
vaše
sŭöje
sŭöje
sŭöje

The inflection of the personal pronouns is as follows. Tŭöj and sŭöj follow the pattern of möj, vaš follows the pattern of naš.

  singular dual plural
masc.fem.neut.masc.fem./neut.masc.fem./neut.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
möj
möj
möhu
mömu
möhola
möjim
mömes
möjem
möhoz
mödu
möhŭod
mömuk
möja
möjö
möjej
möjej
möjäla
möjö
möns
möjej
möjäz
möjädu
möjöd
möjek
möje
möje
möhu
mömu
möhola
möjim
mömes
möjem
möhoz
mödu
möhŭod
mömuk
möja
möja
möjü
möjma
möjüla
möjma
möjmas
möjü
möjüz
möjüdu
möjvŭod
möjmak
möje
möje
möjü
möjma
möjüla
möjma
möjmas
möjü
möjüz
möjüdu
möjvŭod
möjmak
möje
möje
möjich
möjim
möjla
möjme
möjmis
möjich
möjiz
möjdu
möjchŭod
möjmek
möja
möja
möjich
möjim
möjla
möjme
möjmis
möjich
möjiz
möjdu
möjchŭod
möjmek

  singular dual plural
masc.fem.neut.masc.fem./neut.masc.fem./neut.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
naš
naš
našehu
našemu
našola
našim
našimes
našem
našehoz
našedu
našehŭod
našemuk
naša
našö
našej
našej
našela
našö
našöns
našej
našez
našedu
našejöd
našejek
naše
naše
našehu
našemu
našola
našim
našimes
našem
našehoz
našedu
našehŭod
našemuk
naša
naša
našü
našima
našüla
našima
našimas
našü
našüz
našüdu
našüvŭod
našimak
naše
naše
našü
našima
našüla
našima
našimas
našü
našüz
našüdu
našüvŭod
našimak
naše
naše
našich
našim
našila
našime
našimis
našich
našiz
našidu
našichŭod
našimek
naša
naša
našich
našim
našila
našime
našimis
našich
našiz
našidu
našichŭod
našimek


Demonstrative pronouns

Because the indefinite/definite distinction, demonstrative pronouns are only used when an even higher degree of definiteness is needed. If that is the case, Vozgian will normally use the pronoun set, the declension of which is shown in the table below:

  singular dual plural
masc.fem.neut.masc.fem.neut.masc.fem.neut.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
set
sehu
sehu
semu
sehola
sim
simes
sem
sehoz
sedu
sehŭod
semuk
sita
šö
sej
sej
sejäla
šö
šums
sej
sejäz
sejädu
sejöd
sejek
setu
setu
sehu
semu
sehola
sim
simes
sem
sehoz
sedu
sehŭod
semuk
ši
ši
sejü
sima
sejüla
sima
simas
sejü
sejüz
sejüdu
sejvŭod
simak
sa
sa
sejü
sima
sejüla
sima
simas
sejü
sejüz
sejüdu
sejvŭod
simak
ši
ši
sejü
sima
sejüla
sima
simas
sejü
sejüz
sejüdu
sejvŭod
simak
ši
sai
sich
sim
sila
sime
simis
sich
siz
sidu
sichŭod
simek
se
se
sich
sim
sila
sime
simis
sich
siz
sidu
sichŭod
simek
sa
sa
sich
sim
sila
sime
simis
sich
siz
sidu
sichŭod
simek

In case when a distinction in distance needs to be made ("this one" vs. "that one (over there)"), the pronoun ovai will assume the role of the latter, while set assumes the role of the former. Ovai can also be used to express great distance or disdain. It is declined like an ordinary adjective:

  singular dual plural
masc.fem.neut.masc.fem.neut.masc.fem.neut.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
ovai
ovai
ovaigu
ovumu
ovala
ovum
ovumes
oväm
ovaz
ovadu
ovŭod
ovuk
ova
ovö
ovai
ovej
ovaila
ovonjö
ovonjös
ovej
ovaiz
ovaidu
ovöd
ovek
ovu
ovu
ovaigu
ovumu
ovala
ovum
ovumes
oväm
ovaz
ovadu
ovŭod
ovuk
ovaja
ovaja
ovü
ovuma
ovula
ovuma
ovumas
ovü
ovuz
ovudu
ovŭod
ovumak
oveje
oveje
ovü
ovama
ovula
ovama
ovamas
ovü
ovuz
ovudu
ovŭod
ovamak
oveje
oveje
ovü
ovuma
ovula
ovuma
ovumas
ovü
ovuz
ovudu
ovŭod
ovumak
ovi
ovaje
ovich
ovum
ovela
ovume
ovumis
ovech
ovez
ovedu
ovejöd
ovumek
ovaje
ovaje
ovich
ovam
ovela
ovame
ovamis
ovach
ovez
ovedu
ovejöd
ovamek
ovaja
ovaja
ovich
ovum
ovela
ovume
ovumis
ovech
ovez
ovedu
ovejöd
ovumek

Like all other modifiers (adjective, numerals, etc.), the demonstrative pronoun is placed after the noun. Interestingly, nouns accompanied by a demonstrative pronoun always follow the indefinite declension: dom "a house", domet "the house", dom set "this house".


Interrogative pronouns

The interrogative pronouns are kedu "who", čedu "what", čej "whose", and kedorai "which"; the latter can also be used as a relative pronoun, which is probably due to Russian influence. Čej is inflected as a possessive pronoun, kedorai as an adjective. The inflection of kedu and čedu is displayed below:

who?what?
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Ben.
Instr.
Com.
Loc.
El.
Ill.
Abl.
All.
kedu
kohu
kohu
komu
kohola
käm
kämes
kum
kohoz
kodu
kohŭod
komuk
čedu
čedu
čehu
čemu
čehola
čim
čimes
čem
čehoz
čedu
čehŭod
čemuk


Indefinite pronouns

These are created by adding the suffix -se resp. the prefix ni- to the interrogative pronoun: keduse "someone, somebody", nikedu "nobody"; čeduse "something", ničedu "nothing"; čejse "somebody's", ničej "nobody's", etc.


Table of correlatives

Correlatives are the entire set of interrelated indefinite pronouns, interrogative pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, pronoun adverbs and interrogative adjectives, all of which are connected by one interrogative word. Although the following table is far from complete, it gives at least an impression:

question here there some/any no every other
adjective kedorai "which" set "this" ovai "that, yonder" kedoraise "some" žadenai "no" kaženai "each" inai "other"
person kedu "who" keduse "someone" nikedu "nobody" veskedu "everyone" inkedu "someone else"
object čedu "what" čeduse "something" ničedu "nothing" vese "everything" inčedu "something else"
possession čej "whose" čejse "somebody's" ničej"nobody's" inčej "somebody else's"
quantity koliku "how much" seliku "this much" toliku "that much" kolikese "a number of" ničedu "nothing" vese "everything"
quality agai "what kind of" sigai "such" tagai "such" agaise "some kind of" inagai "another kind of"
method ak "how"
tak "so, thus, like that"
akese "somehow" niak "in no way" vesak "anyway" inak "otherwise, else"
place kude "where" sude "here" tam "there" kudese "somewhere" nikude "nowhere" vesude "everywhere" inude "elsewhere"
time kokta "when" sekta "now" tokta "then" koktase "sometime" nikokta "never" vesekta "always" inekta "another time"
reason čela "why" sela "for this reason" tela "therefore" čelase "for some reason" ničela "for no reason"
destination dokond "whereto" dosond "hereto" dotond "thereto" dokondese "(to) somewhere" donikond "(to) nowhere" dovesond "in all directions" doinond "(to) somewhere else"
source odekond "whence" odesond "hence" odetond "thence" odekondese "from somewhere" odenikond "from nowhere" odevesond "from everywhere" odinond "from elsewhere"
route kondai "which way" sondai "this way" tondai "that way" kondaise "some way" nikondai "no way" inondai "along another way"

In addition, there is the particle köle, which placed after the interrogative word give it the meaning: "any-, -ever, no matter": čedu köle "whatever, no matter what", ak köle "no matter how, in any possible way", odekond köle "from anywhere, I couldn't be bothered to tell you wherefrom".