Vozgian – Verbs

VERBS

Verbal typesPresent tensePast tensePerfect tenseFuture tenseConditionalImperativeParticiplesGerundPassive formsIrregular verbs

Verbal types

Vozgian has a rather rich conjugational system, directly inherited from the Common Slavic period. It has three persons and three numbers; apart from the singular and plural, Vozgian also has a dual, although it is mostly used in very official or very posh speech. Furthermore, there are the two aspects (perfective, imperfective; also found in other Slavic languages), four tenses (present, past, perfect, future), three moods (indicative, conditional, imperative), and a number of other forms (infinitive, participles, supine). Vozgian verbs can be subdivided into nine classes:


CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS

The present tense

As shown above, most verb classes have two different stems: one to which the present tense endings are attached (not only the "proper" present, but also the present participles and the imperative), and one to which those of the remaining tenses and moods are attached. There is little variation between the endings of the different classes. In the present tense, they come together in four groups:

  Class
123456789
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
dälaŭ
dälaš
dälaþ
umäŭ
umäš
umäþ
kažö
kažeš
kažeþ
kričö
kričiš
kričiþ
mölö
möliš
möliþ
värjö
värješ
värjeþ
dvikno
dvikneš
dvikneþ
bijö
biješ
bijeþ
neso
neseš
neseþ
1 du.
2/3 du.
dälave
dälate
umäve
umäte
kaževe
kažete
kričive
kričite
mölive
mölite
värjeve
värjete
dvikneve
dviknete
bijeve
bijete
neseve
nesete
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
dälamu
dälate
dälanþ
umämu
umäte
umänþ
kažemu
kažete
kažonþ
kričimu
kričite
kričenþ
mölimu
mölite
mölenþ
värjemu
värjete
värjönþ
dviknemu
dviknete
dviknonþ
bijemu
bijete
bijönþ
nesemu
nesete
nesonþ

Present tense forms can be used for both perfective and imperfective verbs. However, there is a difference in meaning. The present tense of an imperfective verbs denotes an action that factually takes place either presently or habitually. The present tense of a perfective verb indicates, that the action (from the point of view of the present) will be completed, sooner rather than later.


The past tense

The past tense is the result of a merger between the Common Slavic aorist and imperfect tense. In the case of imperfective verbs, it indicates an action that was taking place at some point in the past, or that used to take place in the past; in the case of perfective verbs, it indicates an action that had been completed on the moment of reference in the past (thus effectively fulfilling the fole of a pluperfect).

The forms can be derived directly from the infinitive.

  Class
123456789
1/2/3 sg. dälach umäch kazach kričach mölich värvŭach dviknoch bich nesach
1 du.
2/3 du.
dälachŭe
dälašte
umächŭe
umäšte
kazachŭe
kazašte
kričachŭe
kričašte
mölichŭe
mölište
värvŭachŭe
värvŭašte
dviknochŭe
dviknošte
bichŭe
bište
nesachŭe
nesašte
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
dälachum
dälašte
dälacho
umächum
umäšte
umächo
kazachum
kazašte
kazacho
kričachum
kričašte
kričacho
mölichum
mölište
mölicho
värvŭachum
värvŭašte
värvŭacho
dviknochum
dviknošte
dviknocho
bichum
bište
bicho
nesachum
nesašte
nesacho


The perfect tense

Like in several other Slavic languages, the perfect tense is the result of a contraction of the resultative participle, which is characterised by the ending –l-, and the present tense forms of the verb baiþe "to be". It is encountered with perfective verbs only, indication an action that has been completed The past tense is the result of a merger between the Common Slavic aorist and imperfect tense. In the case of imperfective verbs, it indicates an action that was taking place at some point in the past, or that used to take place in the past; in the case of perfective verbs, it indicates an action that had been completed on the moment of reference in the past.

The forms can be derived directly from the infinitive.

  Class
123456789
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
sudälalu
sudälaleš
sudälal
umälu
umäleš
umäl
pokazalu
pokazaleš
pokazal
vŭaikričalu
vŭaikričaleš
vŭaikričal
sumölilu
sumölileš
sumölil
povärvŭalu
povärvŭaleš
povärvŭal
pödviknolu
pödviknoleš
pödviknol
sübilu
sübileš
sübil
poneslu
ponesleš
ponesel
1 du.
2/3 du.
sudälalve
sudälalte
umälve
umälte
pokazalve
pokazalte
vŭaikričalve
vŭaikričalte
sumölilve
sumölilte
povärvŭalve
povärvŭalte
pödviknolve
pödviknolte
sübilve
sübilte
poneselve
poneselte
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
sudälalmu
sudälalte
sudälali
umälmu
umälte
umäli, -laje
pokazalmu
pokazalte
pokazali
vŭaikričalmu
vŭaikričalte
vŭaikričali
sumölilmu
sumölilte
sumölili
povärvŭalmu
povärvŭalte
povärvŭali
pödviknolmu
pödviknolte
pödviknoli
sübilmu
sübilte
sübili
poneselmu
poneselte
ponesli

Notes:

  1. The forms or the third persons singular and plural are masculine only; feminine and neuter equivalents are dälala/dälalu etc. for the singular, and dälalai/dälala etc. for the plural. These forms are due to Russian influence rather than inherited from Common Slavic.
  2. The verb umäþe is imperfective, and so these actually non-existent forms are displayed only to demonstrate them conjugation-wise. Umäþe "to be able" has no perfective equivalent.
  3. As can be clearly seen from the remaining (perfective) verbs, the hard mutation (unvoiced consonants become voiced before the stressed syllable, while voiced consonants become fricatives) rarely or never applies to prefixed verbs. Thus we have sudälaþe, pokazaþe, sübiþe instead of *suðälaþe, *pogazaþe, *süviþe. On the other hand, the prefix is not spared from Umlaut, hence pödviknoþe and not *podviknoþe.


The future tense

The future tense appears mostly in imperfective verbs, because the present tense of perfective verbs is already a future in itself. Nevertheless, perfective verbs sometimes appear in the future tense too, indicating that sometime in the remote future an action will be completed.

The future is a compound form, consisting of the future tense of the verb baiþe and a form derived from the ancient supine. This form can simply be obtained by replacing the infinitive ending -þe with -t (or, in the case of Class 7, with -nt), and like the infinitive it is undeclinable.

Thus, we get the following forms:

  Class 1-9
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
as bondo dälat, umät, kazat, kričat, mölit, värvŭat, dviknont, bit, nest
tai bondeš ...
et (eta, etu) bondeþ ...
1 du.
2 du.
3 du.
na bondeve dälat, umät, kazat, kričat, mölit, värvŭat, dviknont, bit, nest
va bondete ...
eja (eje, eje) bondete ...
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
mai bondemu dälat, umät, kazat, kričat, mölit, värvŭat, dviknont, bit, nest
vŭai bondete ...
iþe (etai, ita) bondonþ ...


The conditional

Exactly like the perfect tense, the conditional the result of a contraction of the resultative participle with the verb baiþe "to be", but this time not the present but the past tense forms. It can be used both with imperfective and perfective verbs.

  Class
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1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
dälalbam
dälalbaš
dälalbai
umälbam
umälbaš
umälbai
kazalbam
kazalbaš
kazalbai
kričalbam
kričalbaš
kričalbai
mölilbam
mölilbaš
mölilbai
värvŭalbam
värvŭalbaš
värvŭalbai
dviknolbam
dviknolbaš
dviknolbai
bilbam
bilbaš
bilbai
neselbam
neselbaš
neselbai
1 du.
2/3 du.
dälalbaive
dälalbaite
umälbaive
umälbaite
kazalbaive
kazalbaite
kričalbaive
kričalbaite
mölilbaive
mölilbaite
värvŭalbaive
värvŭalbaite
dviknolbaive
dviknolbaite
bilbaive
bilbaite
neselbaive
neselbaite
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
dälalbaimu
dälalbaite
dälalibai
umälbaimu
umälbaite
umälibai
kazalbaimu
kazalbaite
kazalibai
kričalbaimu
kričalbaite
kričalibai
mölilbaimu
mölilbaite
mölilibai
värvŭalbaimu
värvŭalbaite
värvŭalibai
dviknolbaimu
dviknolbaite
dviknolibai
bilbaimu
bilbaite
bilibai
neselbaimu
neselbaite
neslibai


The imperative

The imperative is derived from the present tense stems. It is characterised by the ending -j in classes 1, 2 and 6, and by umlaut in the remaining classes.

  Class
123456789
2 sg. dälaj umäj käž krič möl väruj dvik bij nis
2 du./pl. dälajte umäjte käžite kričite mölite värujte dvikte bijte niste


Participles

Vozgian verbs can generate no less than four participles, not even including the supine, which has found itself a home with the future tense. It has separate forms for the present active, present passive, perfect active, and perfect passive.

  Class
123456789
Present active dälanþai umänþai kaženþai kričenþai mölenþai värjönþai dviknonþai bijönþai nesonþai
Present passive dälamai umämai kažamai kričamai möljamai värjamai dviknomai bijömai nesomai
Perfect active sudälaŭšai umäŭšai pokazaŭšai vŭaikričaŭšai sumölšai povärvŭašai pödvikšai sübišai ponesešai
Present passive sudälanai umänai pokazanai vŭaikričenai sumölenai povärvŭanai pödviktai sübitai (*) ponesenai

(*) The ending -tai instead of -nai is not confined to class 8, nor does it apply to all verbs of this class. It occurs with a limited number of (usually very short) verbs.


The gerund

Not strictly a verbal form, but nevertheless derived regularly from the perfect passive participle, is the verbal noun, the gerund. It is built by substituting the ending -nai by -nje, resp. -tai by -þe. It is declined as a neuter noun of class 13 (in the case of -nje) or 12 (in the case of -þe).

  Class
123456789
Gerund dälanje umänje kazanje kričenje mölenje värvŭanje dvikþe biþe nesenje

Many gerunds have a meaning additional to their "standard meaning": dälanje can both mean "doing" and "activity", imanje can both mean "possessing" and "possession".


Passive forms

Passive forms are not frequently used in Vozgian. When necessary, however, it can be created using a combination of a form of the verb baiþe "to be" and one of the passive participles. The different possilities are displayed in the following table:

  Aspect
imperfectiveperfective
Present tense as bijömai esu "I am (being) hit" (non-existent)
Past tense as bijömai bäch "I was (being) hit" as sübitai bäch "I had been hit"
Perfect tense (non-existent) as sübitai esu "I have been hit"
Future tense as bijömai bondo "I will be hit" as sübitai bondo "I will have been hit"
Conditional as bijömai bälbam "I would be hit" as sübitai bälbam "I would have been hit"


Irregular verbs

Many verbs in Vozgian are conjugated irregularly. The conjugation of the most frequently used is given below:

  baiþe "to be"
PresentPastPerfectFutureConditionalImperativeParticiples
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
esu

bäch
bäch
bäch
bälu
bäleš
bäl
bondo
bondeš
bondeþ
bälbam
bälbaš
bälbai

bonþ
Present active: bondonþai
Present passive:
Perfect active: bäŭšai
1 du.
2/3 du.
esve
este
bächŭe
bäšte
bälve
bälte
bondeve
bondete
bälbaive
bälbaite

Perfect passive: —
Supine
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
esmu
este
sonþ
bächum
bäšte
bächon
bälmu
bälte
bäli
bondemu
bondete
bondonþ
bälbaimu
bälbaite
bälibai

bonste
bait
Gerund
baiþe

  daþe "to give"
PresentPastPerfectConditionalImperativeParticiples
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
daŭ
daš
daþ
dach
dach
dach
dalu
daleš
dal
dalbam
dalbaš
dalbai

daj
Present active: dadonþai
Present passive: damai
Perfect active: daŭšai
1 du.
2/3 du.
dave
daste
dachŭe
dašte
dalve
dalte
dalbaive
dalbaite

Perfect passive: datai
Supine
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
damu
daste
dadonþ
dachum
dašte
dachon
dalmu
dalte
dali
dalbaimu
dalbaite
dalibai

dajte
dat
Gerund
danje

  ideþe "to go"
PresentPastPerfectConditionalImperativeParticiples
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
iðo
iðeš
iðeþ
iðoch
iðoch
iðoch
šelu
šeleš
šel
šelbam
šelbaš
šelbai


Present active: iðonþai
Present passive:
Perfect active: šeŭšai
1 du.
2/3 du.
iðeve
iðeste
iðochŭe
iðošte
šelve
šelte
šelbaive
šelbaite

Perfect passive: —
Supine
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
iðemu
iðete
iðonþ
iðochum
iðošte
iðochon
šelmu
šelte
šeli
šelbaimu
šelbaite
šelibai

iðite
idet
Gerund

  möchþe "can, to be able"
PresentPastPerfectConditionalImperativeParticiples
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
mohu
možeš
možeþ
možach
možach
možach
moglu
mogleš
mogel
mogelbam
mogelbaš
mogelbai


Present active: mohonþai
Present passive:
Perfect active: mogšai
1 du.
2/3 du.
moževe
možete
možachŭe
možašte
mogelve
mogelte
mogelbaive
mogelbaite

Perfect passive: —
Supine
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
možemu
možete
mohonþ
možachum
možašte
možachon
mogelmu
mogelte
mogli
mogelbaimu
mogelbaite
moglibai


mocht
Gerund
möchþe

  chotäþe "to want"
PresentPastPerfectConditionalImperativeParticiples
1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
chöþu
choþeš
choteþ
chotach
chotach
chotach
chotälu
chotäleš
chotäl
chotälbam
chotälbaš
chotälbai


Present active: choþonþai
Present passive: choþamai
Perfect active: chotäŭšai
1 du.
2/3 du.
choþeve
choþete
chotachŭe
chotašte
chotälve
chotälte
chotälbaive
chotälbaite

Perfect passive: chotänai
Supine
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.
choþemu
choþete
chöþonþ
chotachum
chotašte
chotachon
chotälmu
chotälte
chotäli
chotälbaimu
chotälbaite
chotälibai


chotät
Gerund
chotenje