Oproščena gramatika

Slovianto, level 1

Slovianto is a highly simplified form of Interslavic that allows non-Slavic people to express themselves at a very basic level when visiting Slavic countries or maintaining contact with Slavs via the Internet. Grammar is limited to a bare minimum, and forms that are not strictly necessary are not used at all. Because it does not contain anything that cannot be found in the Slavic languages, the result wil not look or sound too awkward to Slavic speakers, but rather remind them of the kind of language used by small children.

Slovianto can also be used as a first step in the process of learning the „real” Interslavic language. It has been constructed in such way that it can gradually be expanded with new bits and pieces that occur in more complex versions. Thus, we distinguish three different levels, each of them adding new elements that bring Slovianto closer to Interslavic:

The working title Slovianto is a portmanteau word for „Slavic Esperanto”. This name, albeit somewhat tongue-in-cheek, refers to the simplicity of Slovianto: it has no gender, no cases, no aspect, little conjugation and no irregularity. Yet, that is where the similarity to Esperanto ends, because Slovianto's means of simplification are in fact far more similar to those used by Interlingua.

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Alphabet and pronunciation

Slovianto can be written in the Latin alphabet and the Cyrillic alphabet, but we will concentrate on the Latin alphabet here:

<
A — as a in English „father”
B — as in English
C — as ts in English „bits
Č — as ch in English „church
D — as in English
— as j in English „John”
E — as e in English „best”
Ě — as ye in English „yet”
F — as in English
G — as g in English „good”
H — as ch in Scottish „loch
I — as ea in English „beat”
J — as y in English „yard”
K — as in English, but without aspiration
L — as in English
LJ — as li in English „million”
M — as in English
N — as in English
NJ — as ny in English „canyon”
O — as o in English „or”
P — as in English, but without aspiration
R — rolled r
RJ — rolled r, followed by ye in English „yet”
S — as s in English „spin”
Š — as sh in English „shop”
T — as in English, but without aspiration
U — as oo in English „book”
V — as v in English „avoid”
Y — as i in English „bit”
Z — as in English
Ž — as si in English „vision”

In the Interslavic dictionary you will find other characters as well, like ò, ų, å or ť. You can simply ignore the diacritics and read them as o, u, a, t etc. That goes for ě, too. The only characters that keep their diacritics in Latin orthography are č, š and ž. If you find writing them inconvenient, you can always use cz, sz and zs (or cx, sx and zx) as an alternative.

Accentuation is fairly free. What matters more is that you speak slowly and clearly. As a general guideline, it would deserve recommendation to put stress on the antepenultimate syllable.

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Grammar

Nouns

Adjectives

Personal pronouns

Possessive pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns

Relative pronouns

Interrogative and indefinite pronouns

Pronominal adverbs

Numerals

Verbs

Syntax

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Sample text: In the restaurant

— Dobry denj! Restoran jest otvorjeny?
— Dobry denj. Da, my jest otvorjeny.
— Možno tu piti něčto?
— Očevidno, čto prinesti k vas?
— Čto vy imat?
— Čaj, kava, pivo, vino, vodka...
— A vy takože imat něčto hladne?
— Da, my imat sok, voda, mlěko...
— Togda dajte nam dva soki, prosim.
— Dva soki, dobro. Vy takože hočet jesti něčto?
— Može... Vy imat hlěb?
— Da, očevidno. Hlěb, meso, ryba, vsečto jest.
— Hvala, samo hlěb s maslo, prosim.
— Good day! Is the restaurant open?
— Good day. Yes, we are open.
— Is it possible to have something to drink here?
— Of course, what shall I bring you?
— What do you have?
— Tea, coffee, beer, wine, vodka...
— Do you also have something cold?
— Yes, we have juice, water, milk...
— Then please give us two juice.
— Two juice, okay. Would you like to eat something as well?
— Maybe... Do you have bread?
— Yes, of course. Bread, meat, fish, everything is there.
— Thank you, just breat with butter, please.

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Basic vocabulary

a – and, but
ako – if
ale – but
avto – car
bez – without
běly – white
bliz – almost
bolje – more
brati – to take
byti – to be
čaj – tea
čas – time
časina – hour
čest – part
člověk – person, human being
črěz – through
črny – black
čto – what
da – yes
dati – to give
daže – even
denj – day
dělati – to do, to make
dělo – act, deed
děte – child
dlja – for
do – to, towards, till
dobro – well
dobry – good
dom – house
dostati – to get, to receive
drugy – second
država – state
dva – two
dveri – door
glas – voice
glava – head
gleděti – to watch
god – year
govoriti – to say, to speak
grad – city, town
groši – money
hladny – cold
hlěb – bread
htěti – to want
hvala – thanks
i – and
idti – to go, to walk
ih – them; their
ili – or
imati – to have
iz – from, out of
ja – I
jedin – one
jedino – only
jego – him; his
jej – her
jesti – to eat
ješče – still
k – to, towards
kaky – what kind of
kako – how; like
kava – coffee
kde – where
kniga – book
kogda – when
konec – end
kto – who
ktory – which
lice – face
ljubiti – to love, to like
maly – little, small
maslo – butter
medžu – between
menje – less
meso – meat
město – place
minuta – minute
mlěko – milk
mnogo – much; very
mogti – can, to be able
moj – my
može – maybe, perhaps
možno – it is possible; possibly
muž – man, husband
my – we
mysliti – to think
na – on, upon, at
nad – above, beyond
najbolje – most
naš – our
ne – no; not
nesti – to carry
neželi – than
něčto – something
někaky – some kind of
několiko – a few, several
ni … ni … – neither ... nor ...
ničto – nothing
nikto – nobody
noč – night
noga – leg
novy – new
o, ob – about
obči – common, general
očevidno – of course
od – of, from
odgovoriti – to answer
oko – eye
on – he
ona – she
oni – they
ostati – to stay, to remain
otec – father
otvoriti – open
piti – to drink
pivo – beer
po – after; in the manner of
početi – to begin, to start
pod – under
pogled – look, sight, view
pokoj – peace, quiet
poslědny – last
potom – after that, then
potrěbny – needed, necessary
prěd – before
pri – by, near
prijatelj – friend
prijdti – to come
prinesti – to bring
problem – problem
prosim – please
prositi – to ask (for sth.), to require
prosty – simple, easy
prvy – first
pytanje – question
pytati – to ask (a question)
rabota – work, labour
rabotati – to work, to labour
raz – time (in the sense of: ... times)
razuměti – to understand
restoran – restaurant
ruka – arm
ryba – fish
s – with
směsta – immediately
snova – again
sam – alone
samo – only, merely
se, sebe – oneself
seděti – to sit
sejčas – now
sila – power, force
slovo – word
slučaj – case, instance, event
sok – juice
sovsěm – entirely, completely
spati – to sleep
stary – old
stati – to become
stati se – to happen
stojati – to stand
stol – table
strana – side
svět – world
svoj – one's own
taky – such
tako – so, in such way
takože – also, too
tamo – there
teply – warm
to – this, that
togda – then
toj – this, that
toliko – this much, that much, only
trěba – it is needed, it is necesary
tri – three
tu – here
tvoj – your (sg.)
ty – you (sg.)
uho – ear
uže – already
v – in; into
vaš – your (pl.)
veliky – great, big
ves – all, entire
vid – aspect, look, vision
viděti – to see
vino – wine
voda – water
vojna – war
vrěme – time
vsaky – every
vse – everything
vsegda – always
vy – you (pl.)
vyjdti – exit, quit
vysoky – high
za – behind
začto – why, what for
zato – that's why, therefore
zemja – earth, ground
zly – bad
značiti – to mean
znati – to know
že – that (conjunction)
žena – woman, wife
žiti – to live