The page of Brithenig


`Yn nediwn seint yn llinghedig, yn nediwn seint yn cor'


Brithenig verb conjugations are supported by Verbix

Verb endings change for person, number and tense. The infinitive is indicated with endings -ar, -er, -ir. The -r is usually left unpronounced. Brithenig verbs are divided into three conjugations according to which infinitive ending the verb takes: In a sentence the infinitive is mutated more often than not due to the preposition a before the verb. The preposition is then dropped but the mutation is preserved. With auxiliaries the infinitive is unmutated. It is the unmutated form that is recorded in the lexicon. It used with other prepositions where English prefers to use '-ing': It is also used to replace the past tense: The preposition subr, on is translated as 'about to' before the infinitive: The present indicative describes an action happening at the present time:

eo ganteo berdd eo ddwrf
ty gantty berddty ddwrf
ys cantys perddys dwrf
sa gant sa berddsa ddwrf
nw chanhannw pherdden nw ddorfen
gw chanhath gw pherddeth gw ddorfith
ys/sa chanhant ys/sa pherddent ys/sa ddorfent

Brithenig distinguishes different endings to go with each person and and number. The singular forms are unmarked, -n goes with nw, -nt goes with ys and sa when they are plural, and -th goes with gw, and -nt goes with ys and sa when they are plural. The `-t' on the third person plural ending is silent, in the spoken language there is no difference between this and the ending of the first person plural verb. Also the initial consonant undergoes soft mutation in the singular verb (except after ys) or spirant mutation in the plural verb. Just as standard English always indicates the third person singular with the ending -s (he carries), so these endings must also always be used in Brithenig. If an object pronoun is inserted before the verb, then the verb always undergoes mutation, soft before a singular pronoun, spirant before a plural pronoun.

A verb is reflexive when when its subject and object are the same person: eo fi law, I wash (myself); in Brithenig the object is not omitted.

Llawarsi, to wash oneself:

eo fi lawnw nw lawan
ty dy lawgw 'w lawath
ys/sa si lawys/sa si lawant

In speech the first `w' on gw 'w loses it vocalic quality and the combination is pronounced `gwoo'.
Sometimes `myself', etc are used for emphasis and not as the object of a reflexive verb. In such cases it is translated as medissif:

Brithenig makes the present participle by replacing the infinitive ending with -n: It forms a progressive tense with the verb ystar, `to stand': The present participle can also be an adjective: The Latin gerund ending in -nt, still exists in a handful of words in Brithenig that are used as adjectives and nouns, such as afent, wealthy, and president, president. But the survival of these is an historic feature and not a productive one, in Brithenig the present participle has taken over the role of the gerund.

The past participle has the ending -d:

Some past participles are irregular: The forms of the imperfect are:
eo ganhafeo berddefeo ddorfif
ty ganhafty berddefty ddorfif
ys canhafys perddefys dorfif
sa ganhafsa berddefsa ddorfif
nw chanafannw pherddefannw ddorfifan
gw chanafathgw pherddefathgw ddorfifath
ys/sa chanafantys/sa pherddefantys/sa ddorfifant
The imperfect is used to describe an action that happened in the past that is not concluded at this point due to it being an ongoing action, an interpreted action or an habitual action. So Eo ganhaf can be interpreted as either `I sang', `I was singing', or `I used to sing'.

`I was singing' can also be translated as eo ystaf canhan.

Remember that the final -f on the singular verb is silent.

The past definite describes a completed and unrepeatable action that happened in the past. Some verb endings have been lost and replaced with the imperfect, or with a compound past tense:

eo ganhafeo berddefeo ddorfif
ty ganhastty berddestty ddorfist
ys canhafys perddefys dorfif
sa ganhafsa berddefsa ddorfif
nw chanafannw pherddefannw ddorfifan
gw chanhastgw pherddestgw ddorfist
ys/sa channarentys/sa pherdderentys/sa ddorfirent
The past definate is used particularly to describe an historical event; or in connection with a temporal adverb or adverbial phrase; or a `when' phrase; or a conclusive and final action.

There are a small number of verbs where the past definate is irregular, one such verb is diger, to say:

eo ddisnw ddisen
ty ddisistgw ddisist
ys dis/sa ddisys/sa ddisirent
Other irregular verbs are: The future tense is translated `I will' or `I shall'. It is formed by adding the endings -ai, -a, -a, -an, -ath, -ant to the infinitive. All Brithenig verbs use these endings in the future tense:
eo ganaraieo berdderaieo ddorfirai
ty ganaraty berdderaty ddorfira
ys canarays perdderays dorfira
sa ganarasa berdderasa ddorfira
nw chanarannw pherdderannw ddorfiran
gw chanarathgw pherdderathgw ddorfirath
ys/sa chanarantys/sa pherdderantys/sa ddorfirant
For the immediate future tense Brithenig can use gweddir, `go' with the infinitive tense of the verb: The conditional tense translates to mean `might', `could', `would' or `should'. It is formed by adding a -ew ending to the infinitive:
eo ganarew eo berdderew eo ddorfirew
ty ganarew ty berdderewty ddorfirew
ys canarew ys perdderew ys dorfirew
sa ganarew sa berdderew sa ddorfirew
nw chanarewn nw pherdderewn nw ddorfirewn
gw chanarewth gw pherdderewthgw ddorfirewth
ys/sa chanarewntys/sa pherdderewntys/sa ddorfirewnt
The conditional is used to indicate a future tense to a past action. It is used in indirect speech after a verb used to communicate ideas: The conditional tense is also used in a sentence after an `if' clause: If the second clause does not have the sense of an action not happening then another tense replaces the conditional: The conditional is also used in describing non-specific repetative action in the past: The relative pronoun ke, `who, what, which, that' is often omitted in Brithenig, especially the spoken language. Ke is the most common form of the relative pronoun. The alternative ill cal is used to avoid ambiguity in a sentence. It is variable in gender and number and cannot be omitted. Ke is more often encountered in speech.

`Whose' can be translated by ke sew before the noun or by di'll cal after it. `When' and `where' are translated respectively as can and ill llwg (ke).

Brithenig uses disjunctive pronouns in dependent clauses:

The subjunctive tenses are no longer productive in modern Brithenig. They only survive in proverbial phrases such as: There are two subjunctive tenses, past and present. The present tense is distinctive that it includes i-mutation in all three conjunctions, if only partially in the -ar conjunction. A, e, and o in the stem become ei, or e is the stress is not on the stem vowel, u becomes y, and aw, when it occurs, becomes ew; i is unaffected. The vowels in the ending also change, for -er and -ir verbs it becomes ia, while for -ar verbs it becomes ie.
eo ganteo beirddeo ddeirf
ty gantty beirddty ddeirf
ys cantys peirddys deirf
sa gantsa beirddsa ddeirf
nw chenhiennw pherddiannw dderfian
gw chenhiethgw pherddiathgw dderfiath
ys/sa chanhentys/sa pherddiantys/sa dderfiant
The past subjunctive is simpler and is made by infixing -ss(e) between the normal stem and the ending:
eo ganhaseo berddeseo ddorfis
ty ganhasty berddesty ddorfis
ys canhasys perddesys dorfis
sa ganhassa berddessa dorfis
nw chanassennw pherddessennw ddorfissen
gw chanassethgw pherddessethgw ddorfisseth
ys/sa chanassentys/sa pherddessentys/sa ddorfissent
Compound tenses are made with two new verbs, esser, `to be' and afwyr, `to have'. They are irregular and do not conform to the three conjugations that have been given so far. Present tense:
eo sunw suneo ainw h-afen
ty esgw h-esty agw h-afeth
ys/sa esys/sa suntys/s' ays/sa h-ant
essenystad (from ystar, `to stand')
eo ernw h-eraneo afefnw h-afefan
ty ergw h-erathty afefgw h-afefath
ys/sa erys/sa h-erantys/s' afefys/sa h-afefant
Past Definite:
eo ffewnw ffewneo afewnw h-afewn
ty ffewstgw ffewthty afewstgw h-afewth
ys/sa ffewys/sa ffewrentys/sa afewys/sa h-afewrent
eo serainw seraneo afrainw h-afran
ty seragw serathty afranu h-afrath
ys/sa serays/sa serantys/sa afrays/sa h-afrant
Present Subjunctive:
eo sianw sianeo ainw h-aian
ty siagw siathty aigw h-aiath
ys/sa siays/sa siantys/sa aiys/sa h-aiant
Sia is pronounced as sha in the present subjunctive of 'to be'.

Past Subjunctive:

eo ffewsnw ffewsseneo afewsnw h-afewssen
ty ffewsgw ffewssethty afewsgw h-afewsseth
ys/sa ffewsys/sa ffewssentys/sa afewsys/sa h-afewssent
eo serewnw serewneo afrewnw h-afrewn
ty serewgw serewthty afrewgw h-afrewth
ys/sa serewys/sa serewntys/sa afrewys/sa h-afrewnt
Gweddir, to go is irregular in the present tense:
eo wanw wan
ty wagw wath
ys gwa/sa ways/sa want
Otherwise the verb is regular and uses the longer stem.

The word for `not' is rhen. It comes after the verb phrase:

With verbs beginning with p, t, c, b, d, g, the nasal mutation is used on all verbs beginning with these letters when they are followed by a negative adverb: Similar to rhen is nonc, `never'. In questions 'ever' is translated as nonc: Rhen is also used before nouns, rhen llaeth, `no milk'.

`There is' or `there are' is sa es:

When an object follows a negative verb then the preposition di is inserted between the verb and the following noun. Literally this would be translated as 'none of':

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