Relay 10/R

List of translations

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6ax = 2nd person pronoun
6hlaalaan = lips; believe, think (NOM); say, talk, argue (ERG)
chkwk = arm; hold, rend, grasp
cjokga = (period of) time
ckvk = 3rd person pronoun
craecraecr = Malefactive case
craeq = tooth; bite, chew, eat
crool = fire; be angry
cxaqqokhqyyx = cause, occur, happen, make
gchan = Nominative case
ggoo6vx = Benefactive case
ggyj = fist; hit, fight, punch, beat, etc.
grkae6 = claw(s); claw, pick
grsak = "wanting" post-verbal, so "(I go) grsak" could mean "I want to go"
grsakjjel = stomach; want, need, be necessary
gyjkwl = hand; smash, hit, beat
j'akrjjakr = musical instrument
jjho- = male (noun prefix)
jkwgr- = go, leave, away, from (verb prefix)
jryylcyj = Allative case (to)
jryylgryj = Locative case (at)
jryylqyj = Ellative case (from)
k'vgyn = Dative case
k'yckyn = cave, hole, dwelling
k'yk'ac = to run
kegaek = arrive, come
kgaek- = arrive, come, to (verb prefix)
kgan = Ergative case
kgw- = female (noun prefix)
khwkrol = Instrumental case
kkakkac = leg, foot; walk, kick
kkexk'aes = ghost, evil spirit, etc. (lit. dark-demon)
krk'vkh = eye; see (NOM); look (ERG)
kvqrcagr = heart, heartbeat; chant, sing, beat (of heart)
l6eccek = Inference evidential
l6ekcak = Hearsay evidential
l6eq'vkr = Maybe evidential
l6okkokh = First-hand, visual evidential
l6wkkvk' = General knowledge evidential
l6yckvkh = First-hand, nonvisual evidential
lyq = 1st person pronoun
n6aejgaekr = Doubtful evidential
ngan = Accusative case
-ojael = Future.Relative copula form (equivalent to "6aeael (be)")
q'crwn = non-adult of same clan
qqac = this
qrooqrooljhyyn = parent, ancestor
-qwwn = some, a particular, one (nominal suffix)
qysswjjwwn = cease, stop, end
sses = tremble, shake
xaggaal = throat; growl, yell
xvjkwgr = go, leave

Chrol (*)

Apollo Hogan

Ring B

"Gwc cxaqqokhqyyx", 6oj 6hlaalaan c'aeaes kgan lyq l6yckvkh. Ngan qqac kcvl 6hlaalaan c'aeaes gchan lyq.

Grych q'crwn gchan lyq jryylgryj qqac cjokga. Ggoo6vx lyq kcvl grsakjjel c'aeaes gchan kgw-qrooqrooljhyyn, grych 6hlaalaan gchan lyq. Grych 6hlaalaan xaech-c'aeaes gchan kqw-qrooqrooljhyyn-qrooqrooljhyyn l6eccek. Jryylgryj cocrlwq-qwwn jryylcyj k'yckyn k'vgyn lyq grych kkakkac kgan jjho-qrooqrooljhyyn l6okkokh. Qvj kvqrcagr kgan lyq, grych grsakjjel kgan ckvk. Khwkrol j'akrjjakr grych sses-sses-gyjkwl-gyjkwl kgan ckvk jryylgryj cjokga-cjokga. Krcryl kegaek krcryl xaggaal kgan kkexk'aes c'vk', l6okkokh. Krcryl sses gchan jjho-qrooqrooljhyyn, ngan kkexk'aes krcryl craeq-grkae6-chkwk-ggyj kgan kgw-qrooqrooljhyyn l6okkokh. Krcryl jkwgr-k'yk'ac kgan lyq. Ngan kkexk'aes krcryl qysswjjwwn c'aeaes kgan lyq l6eccek. Ngan qysswjjwwn-ojael xaech krcryl 6hlaalaan c'aeaes gchan lyq. Craecraecr qrooqrooljhyyn-qrooqrooljhyyn krcryl crool c'aeaes gchan lyq, krcryl krk'vkh-grsakjjel grsak gchan lyq.

Gwc cxaqqokhqyyx c'vk' l6okkokh jryylgryj cocrlwq-c'aeaes, 6oj 6hlaalaan c'aeaes kgan lyq l6yckvkh.

"It happened", I won't say. I don't believe this.

I was a child at this time. I thought I didn't need a mother. It seemed mothers couldn't think. One time my father came to me at home. He wanted me to sing. He was playing (lit. beating and shaking) a musical-instrument (j'akrjjakr). Then an evil-spirit suddenly comes and growls and yells. Father was shaking so much. My mother then attacks and fights the spirit. I run away. It seems I can't make the spirit stop. I didn't think I could ever make it stop. I am not angry at my parents. I am jealous.

This happened, I swear! Never will I speak of this.

Grammar tables

Case markers (precedes noun-phrase):

Ergative kgan(active subject)
Accusative ngan(direct object, patient)
Nominative gchan(inactive subject)
Dative k'vgyn(indirect objects, also possessors)
Benefactive ggoo6vx(beneficiary, s.o. who benefits from action)
Malefactive craecraecr(s.o. who suffers from action or is harmed)
Instrumental khwkrol(instrument or tool)
Locative jryylgryj(location, 'at')
Allative jryylcyj(motion towards, 'to')
Ellative jryylqyj(motion away, 'from')
Vocative ccocok 

Verb TMA Preverbal Particles (precedes verb):

Past gwc grych gool k'eq
Presentkcvl krcryl kyyl qvj
Future 6oj 6ryjh 6aeael jrog

Pronouns (unmarked for number):

1st lyq
2nd 6ax
3rd ckvk

Post-Verbals (immediately follows verb):

Negative c'aeaes
Success xaech
Wanting grsak
Surprising c'vk'
Often/Much (Reduplicate Tense-Mood Particle)
Continuous (Reduplicate Verb)

Evidentials (sentence-final):

General knowledge l6wkkvk'
First-hand, visual l6okkokh
First-hand, nonvisual l6yckvkh
Hearsay l6ekcak
Inference l6eccek
Maybe l6eq'vkr
Doubtful n6aejgaekr

Grammar notes

Vowels are: o, a, e, ae, w, v, y
Consonants are: l, s, x, j, g, 6, c, k, q, (plus diacrits: ', h, r)

Word order is generally OVS. Adjectives precede nouns.

Reduplication is used for marking plurality of nouns, comparatives of adjectives, continuous mood of verbs and occasionally for general emphasis.

Case marking is fairly flexible. Ergative marks an agentive, active participant; nominative a more passive participant; accusative marks the patient. Compare:

    ngan ckvk gwc      krk'vkh  kgan lyq
    ACC  3rd  Past.Abs see/look ERG  1st
    I looked at him.

    ngan ckvk gwc      krk'vkh  gchan lyq
    ACC  3rd  Past.Abs see/look NOM   1st
    I saw him.

You can look at for more examples.

© Jan van Steenbergen, Apollo Hogan, 1 Sept. 2004