In the Interlinear
ACC - Accusative case
In the Lexicon (Part of speech abbreviations)
adj. - adjective
Pelán Nelis Caró
The Story of the Evil Child
In the interlinear, unmarked elements and elements that are marked through some way other than with a separate morpheme are in parentheses.
Pelán Nel.is Car.ó pelán nel.NEUT car.EP 1. Tas.é cwis ám.í yú.á, sí ál.é tam? tas.ACC cw.NEUT ám.NOM yúú(PRSNT).INT s.NOM ál.ACC temú(PAST IND) 2. Hwen.í elend.á licé té.álan bé.yes.ú nel.é. hwená.NOM elend.FEM lucíú(PAST IND) té.álan bé.yesú.INF nel.ACC 3. Nel.é áth.í malath; áth.í math em.ádh, í nel.acc áth.NOM melethú(PAST IND) áth.NOM methú(PAST IND) em.ádh, í áth.í les té.ádh. áth.NOM lisú(PAST IND) té.ádh 4. Sau hwen.é nel.í oros. sau hwená.ACC nel.NOM arasú(PAST IND) 5. Pel.é sé.hwen.is nel.í rodh í nóém.é món pelá.ACC sé.hwen.NEUT nel.NOM radhú(PAST IND) í nóém.ACC mánú(PAST IND) í ces.é topas is.cisceth té.aram. í ces.ACC tapesú(PAST IND) is.cisceth té.aram 6. Twí san.á tis.ú? Ár.í yú sá. tw.NOM sen(PAST).INT tis.ú? ár.NOM yúú(PRSNT IND) sá 7. Erath nel.é ár.í lal, athá dan.í cwó sen sá tel.ú erath nel.ACC ár.NOM lelú(PRSNT IND) athá dan.NOM cw.EP senú sá telú.INF mean.é, tas.é s.í sel í tesel and.ú mean.ACC tas.ACC s.NOM selú(PRSNT IND) í teselú(PRSNT IND) andú.INF té men.ó. tá.ACC men.EP
Notes on grammar
Evíendadhail is an OSV language. Adjectives follow their heads.
Adjectives match their heads in gender, but nouns in most cases are not marked for gender. If a noun is marked for gender, it is in the genitive and acting as an adjective, and it is marked for the gender of its head, not itself. This includes nouns which are governed by prepositions that modify nouns. If the object of the preposition is marked for gender, the prepositional phrase is adjectival and modifies the noun it follows; if the object of the preposition is not marked for gender, the prepositional phrase is adverbial and modifies the verb it follows.
In general, nouns have the gender of the sex of the object they refer to. Hence, in the above text, hwená is feminine and nel is epicene although this not marked (although hwená ends in what appears to be the feminine marker, this is part of the noun and not a separate morpheme.).
Prepositions are prefixes on their objects and govern genitive nouns.
There are a couple of uses in this text of auxilliary verbs. These are conjugated like any other verb, and are followed by the main verb in the infinitive form, which is very similar to how English does this.
Verbs are inflected for tense and mood and nouns for case and number. All nouns in this piece of text are of the same number, the unmarked basic number, which indicates a specific number of some object, but not how many.
The most difficult part of this text is probably the relative clauses. Evíendadhail uses two particles to indicate relative clauses. The first is cw- and the second is s-. The cw- particle is in the main clause and acts as an adjective. The noun it describes is then equated to the s- particle which is in the relative clause and acts as a noun. For example:
Daní céyáné cwis aras, sí mán.
Dan.é céyán.í cw.is aras, s.í mán. man.ACC dog.NOM cw.NEUT attack(PRSNT IND) s.NOM eat(PRSNT IND)
This means "The dog that eats attacks the man." In this example, the thing described by the adjective cwis is the same thing that that is the subject of the verb 'eat' in the next clause.
It is also possible for the s- particle to fill a role other than that of subject in the next sentence. For example:
Daní céyáné cwis aras, sé daní temen.
Dan.é céyán.í cw.is aras, sé daní temen. man.ACC dog.NOM cw.NEUT attack(PRSNT IND) s.ACC man.NOM hit(PRSNT IND)
which means "The dog that the man hits attacks the man."
© Jan van Steenbergen, Matthew Kehrt, 22 Aug. 2004