by Philip Newton
So ansel azhcite
Zhesne zut uestu co azhcitan. Rhedce dy soî suloroi tencu bolyáshä alcalä er ilat idurne.
So zut uestu zarhezne she ciluomán. Anán dënán,
keshne suloram ke sicha onzhanne azhcitan. Ilun mizhe, "Sen danai ansel lë!
Vulu pertróuen esli travëtomi zam kashü im azhcitan."
So suloro advedne, "Rho tenao suim ansel."
So ciluom osne lyö fashe, ac so suloro voitce im azhcita sa rhoberul dher.
The key of the monastery
There lived a wicked man near a monastery. He believed that the monks possessed a large treasure and he desired it.
The wicked man began to work as policeman. One day, he stopped a monk who
was returning to the monastery. He said to him, "Give me your key! I want
to discover whether criminals are hiding in the monastery."
The monk answered, "I have no key."
The policeman became very angry, but the monk entered into the monastery through the unlocked door.
This interlinear shows the base form and inflection for
each word used in the text, enabling you to look it up in the glossary. For
compouns words or words with affixes, these are also given separately.
nouns, pronouns, adjectives, definite article:
- N, G, D, A = cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative)
- S, P = number (singular [default], plural)
- M, F = gender (masculine, feminine)
- 1, 2, 3 = person
- S, P = number
- =, <, !, INF = tense/mood (present [default], past, imperative, infinitive)
- if no symbol is used for a certain aspect (e.g. number or tense/mood),
then it's the default aspect marked above. For example, tenec.1S is the same
as tenec.1S.= (default tense = present) and ciluom.N is the same as ciluom.N.S
(default number = singular).
So ansel azhcite
so.N.S.M ansel.N azhcita.G
uestu co azhcitan. Rhedce dy soî
zhesan.3S.< zut.N.S.M uestu.N co azhcita.D rhedec.3S.< dy so.N.P.M
suloroi tencu bolyáshä
alcalä er ilat idurne.
suloro.N.P tenec.3P.< bolyáshe.A.S.F alcalë.A er ila.A iduran.3S.<
uestu zarhezne she ciluomán.
so.N.S.M zut.N.S.M uestu.N za-rhezen.3S.< she ciluom.D an.D.S.M
dënán, keshne suloram ke
sicha onzhanne azhcitan. Ilun
dën.D keshen.3S.< suloro.A ke.N sicha onzhanen.3S.< azhcita.D ilu.D
mizhe, "Sen danai ansel
lë! Vulu pertróuen
mizec.3S.< se.D dan.2S.! ansel.A le.G vulir.1S pertróuen.INF esli
travëtomi zam kashü im azhcitan."
travëtom.N.P ze.A.P kashir.3P im azhcita.D
So suloro advedne,
"Rho tenao suim ansel."
so.N.S.M suloro.N advechen.3S.< rho tenec.1S suy.A.S.M ansel.A
So ciluom osne
lyö fashe, ac so
so.N.S.M ciluom.N ocan.3S.< lyö fashe.N.S.M ac so.N.S.M suloro.N
voitce im azhcita sa rhoberul dher.
voitec.3S.< im azhcita.A sa rho-berul.A.S.M dher.A
(prep. = preposition; m./f. = masc./fem. noun; adj.
= adjective; v. = verb [vt. = transitive verb; v.irr. = irregular verb];
adv. = adverb; pron. = pronoun; conj. = conjunction)
ac conj. but
advechen v. to answer
alcalë f. treasure
an adj. one
ansel m. key
azhcita f. monastery
berul adj. locked
bolyáshe adj. large
ciluom m. policeman, guard
co prep. near, by, alongside
dan v.irr. to give (object = acc., recipient = dat.)
dher m. door
dy conj. that (starts a subordinate clause)
dën m. day
er conj. and
fashe adj. angry
iduran v. to desire
ila pron. she, it (with feminine nouns)
ilu pron. he, it (with masculine nouns)
im prep. in (+dative), into (+accusative)
kashir v. to hide
pron. who (can be either interrogative or relative)
keshen vt. to stop
le pron. you (singular)
lyö adv. very
mizec v. to say
ocan v. to become, to turn (temporarily)
onzhanen v. to return, to go back
pertróuen v. to discover
rhedec v. to believe
rhezen v. to work
rho adv. not
rho- prefix: non-, un-
sa prep. through
se pron. I
she prep. as, in the function of
sicha adv. (marks a verb as progressive or continuous)
the (definite article; inflects like an adjective)
suloro m. monk
adj. none, not any, not one, no (used together with "rho")
tenec v. to have, to possess
travëtom m. criminal
uestu m. man
voitec v. to enter
vulir v. to want
prefix: marks that a verb begins (e.g. ivrec, to read; zaivrec, to
begin to read, to start reading)
pron. himself, themselves (third person reflexive pronoun)
zhesan v. to live, to dwell (somewhere)
zut adj. wicked
1. Verdurian is a fairly Indo-European-oid language with two genders, two
numbers, and four cases. The sentence order is typically SVO, though pronominal
objects always precede the verb; due to caseendings, the order can be varied.
2. The pronoun "ke" (inflected for number and case) can be either interrogative
("Who killed Kenny?") or relative ("I saw the man who killed Kenny"). When
it starts a subordinate clause, it takes the case which the referent has
in the subordinate clause (in the example, nominative in the first case "who
killed Kenny", even though the subordinate clause describes a noun in the
3. The definite article is inflected for gender, number, and case. There
is no indefinite article. So "so dalu" = "the king" and "dalu" = "king, a
The definite article is generally not used in genitive constructions, so
"soî brigoshî daluë" could be either "the weapons of kings"
or "the weapons of the kings".
The definite article is also generally not used in locative constructions,
so "im azhcita" can be either "into a monastery" or "into the monastery".
4. The adverb "sicha" (progressive) is used with verbs to express certain
distinctions which might be expressed by auxiliary verbs or endings in other
languages, for example, an imperfect form.
5. Certain prepositions take the dative case to describe location and the
accusative case to describe motion. For example, "im azhcitan" (dative) is
"in a monastery", while "im azhcita" (accusative) is "into a monastery".
The dative case, when used after a verb of motion, describes the destination
of the motion: "lädan alcalen" = "to go to the treasure".
6. Reflexive verbs are expressed, in the third person, with the pronoun
"ze" in the appropriate number and case. For example, from "badhir", to hit,
is derived "zet [acc.] badhir", to hit oneself.
Sometimes this would be translated in English with an intransitive verb,
e.g. "kashir" = "to hide (something)" vs "zet kashir" = "to hide oneself"
or simply "to hide".
7. Expressions of time use the dative to describe when something happens,
e.g. "utro" (nom), morning; "utron" (dat), in the morning.