Relay 10/R

List of translations

Previous (Jovian)

Next (Uchunata)


a (vocative)
a (preposition) < AD
abuis (conjunction) < AD PENSEM
afer, afrew (verb) < HABERE
agur (adverb) < AC ORA
asselir (verb) < ASSALIRE
canhar (verb) < CANTARE
canhiwn (feminine noun) < CANTIO
cas (feminine noun) < CASA
ci (adverb) < ECCE HIC
contr (preposition) < CONTRA
cos (feminine noun) < CAUSA
deleithar (verb) < DELECTARE
dew (masculine noun) < DEUS
dewerar (verb) < DEVORARE
di (preposition) < DE
diger (verb) < DICERE
e (conjunction) < ET
eo (pronoun) < EGO
esser (verb) < ESSE
'ew (possessive adjective) < MEUS
ffad (feminine noun) < FATA
ffager, ffaeth (verb) < FACERE
ffeig (feminine noun) < FACIES
ffenestr (feminine noun) < FENESTRA
ffin (masculine noun) < FINIS
ffuid (feminine noun) < FETA, FETUS
ffuin (feminine noun) < FEMINA
gw (pronoun) < VOS
gwarddar (verb germanic) < WARDAN
gwenir (verb) < VENIRE
gwer (feminine noun germanic) < WERRA
gwerdad (adverb) < VERITAS
ia (adverb) < JAM
iager, iaeth (verb) < JACERE
iewen (adjective) < JUVENIS
iewolar (verb) < JUGULARE
ill, 'll (masculine article) < ILLE
inawant (adverb) < IN + AB + ANTE
ineiddar (verb late latin) < INODIARE from ESSE IN ODIO
intrroadiwn (feminine noun) < INTERROGATIO
irein (feminine noun) < IRONIA
ke (interrogative adjective) < QUAE
lla (feminine article) < ILLA
llâ (adverb) < ILLAC
llingw (feminine noun) < LINGUA
llo (plural article) < ILLOS
mai (conjunction) < MAGIS
manugar (verb) < MANDUCARE
medissif (adjective late latin) < METIPSIMUS
mulltisaf (augmented adverb) < MULTUS + ISIMUS (influenced by Celtic -ISAMOS)
nustr (possessive adjective) < NOSTER
o (vocative)
onc (conjunction) < UNQUAM
per (preposition) < PER
pobl (masculine noun) < POPULUS
pyblig (masculine noun) < PUBLICUM
rhen (negative particle) < RES
rhibrofar (verb) < RE + PROBARE
sa (feminine nominative pronoun) < IPSA
saber (verb) < SAPERE
se (conjunction) < SI
sig (adverb) < SICUT
sui (disjunctive pronoun) < SE
ti (accusative pronoun) < TE
tosar =TACERE (I haven't had the chance to research where I found this word)
yr (adverb) < HERI
ystar (verb) < STARE

Brithenig (*)

Andrew Smith

Ring R

Gwardd-ti di lla ffuid

"O'ew Dew! Ke gos es-sa wenid di gi?

"Yr, lla wer es gwenid a nustr gas, o ffuin iewen, di onc ffagewth a warddar-gw di llo ffuid! Sa h-erant ffaeth di lla irein di lla ffad fedissif: lla ffuid sui yst deleithan di ganhar llo chanhiwn, e sig inawant. Mai llâ sa fedissif er asselid, iewolad e ddewerad, abuis a'll ffin llo rhibrofad h-erant iaeth di llo ffenestr."

"A, ke gos es-sa wenid? Ffagewth a ddiger, ke gos es-sa wenid?"

"Gwerdad eo sab rhen. E di onc llo nustr llingw thosant ia agur, per se lla gos serew ystad manugad di'll pyblig, afrew ystad ffeig contr mulltisaf di'll pobl ineiddad a lla intrroadiwn."

Beware of the baby

O my God! What happened here?

Yesterday, the war had come to our house, o young lady, therefore would you beware of the babies! They are made of the irony of fate itself: the baby was delighting itself by singing the songs, and so on. But then they themselves were attacked, their throats cut and devoured, until at last the refuted things were thrown out the windows.

O, what came? Would you tell, what came?

Indeed I do not know. And therefore our tongues are silent already now, for if the thing had been eaten in public, had been facing against a great lot of people bored to the interrogation.

(What the last paragraph means is anyone's guess. I'm sure it is significant in context :) )

Some notes on grammar


Initial mutations are productive in Brithenig. They occur in feminine noun phrases, after some parts of speech (above after o, ke, di, a and e), in questions where the order of words are inverted; and in plural noun phrases and verbs.

The first type is soft mutation, and the second is aspirant mutation, which indicates the plural. Examples of the soft mutation above cause d > dd /D/, c > g, g > 0, and m > f /v/. Examples of the aspirant mutation cause c /k/ > ch /x/, and 0 (vowel initial) > h.


While the noun still has number and grammatical gender, normally it is not indicated by any inflections of the noun. This role has been taken over by the article ill (masculine), lla (feminine) and llo (plural). Adjectives follow after the noun.


Verbs are inflected for person and number. The verb endings in the modern language are reduced in form. The singular verb uses the 0-ending; the second plural the ending -th; and the first and third plural verb the ending -n or -nt, both of which are pronounced the same.

In the above text tense varies between present tense (es, yst, t(h)osant); past tense (er, erant from ERA past tense of ESSE) and the conditional tense with the affix -ew-. Note that the 2nd pl. conditional of FACERE is used as a polite command form.

The past particle ends in -d. In the above text it is used with the present and past tenses of ESSE as the perfect tense. The past particles of FACERE and JACERE are irregular and listed below. The present participle is made with the ending -n. It is used in the text above with STARE to form a continuous tense. The past participle of STARE is used as the past participle for ESSE.

The title is a reference to a common warning sign. (So I am told)

© Jan van Steenbergen, Andrew Smith, 20 Aug. 2004